Typha angustifolia minor L.
Typha angustissima Griff. ex Rohrb.
Typha balansae Reut. ex Rohrb.
Typha bungeana C.Presl
Typha caucasica Lehm. ex Rohrb.
Typha elliptica C.C.Gmel.
Typha juncea Steven ex Rohrb.
Typha juncifolia Celak.
Typha juncifolia Montandon
Typha media Barbieri ex Rohrb.
Typha minima Hoffm.
Typha minima laxmannii (Lepech.) Nyman
Typha minor (L.) Sm.
Typha minuta Schrenk ex Rohrb.
Typha nana Avé-Lall.
Typha poitiaei Poit. ex Rohrb.
Typha stenophylla Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
Typha veresczaginii Krylov & Schischk.
Typha zerovii Klokov f. & Krasnova
Typha laxmannii is a herbaceous perennial plant growing from a vigorous, rhizomatous rootstock. The plant forms a large, dense clump of erect, unbranched stems 80 - 150cm tall[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of materials.
This species is widespread with stable populations and does not face any major threats. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
A very invasive plant spreading freely at the roots when in a suitable site. It can escape from cultivation and invade native habitats.
E. Europe - southern Russia to Bulgaria and Greece; through Asia to the Russian Far East, Japan, Korea, Pakistan and India
Lakes, rivers, ditches and wet places in Turkey[
]. Wet marshy places, most frequently in proximity of rivers and lakes[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
Grow in a rich soil in boggy pond margins or shallow water to 15cm deep[
]. Succeeds in sun or part shade[
A very invasive plant spreading freely at the roots when in a suitable site, it is not suitable for growing in small areas unless planted in containers or tubs to restrict the roots[
Seedlings rapidly form clones by means of rhizomes in their first season, flower the second season, and often form very large, persistent, often monospecific stands[
Unless restrained by some means, such as a large bottomless container, the plant will soon completely take over a site and will grow into the pond, gradually filling it in. This species will often form an almost complete monoculture in boggy soil.
Provides excellent cover for wildlife.
Rhizomes - raw or cooked[
]. A sweet flavour[
]. Rich in starch, around 30 - 46%, they can be boiled and eaten like potatoes or macerated and then boiled to yield a sweet syrup[
]. The rhizome can also be dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereal flours[
]. Rich in protein, this flour is used to make biscuits, bread, cakes etc.
The rhizomes at the base of erect shoots are mostly horizontal, unbranched, up to 70 cm long and 5 - 40mm in diameter. They are starchy, firm and scaly[
Young shoots in spring - raw or cooked. An asparagus substitute. The young shoots are cut from the underground stems in the spring when they are about 10 - 40cm long[
Base of mature stem - raw or cooked. It is best to remove the outer part of the stem. The base of the stem where it attaches to the rhizome can be boiled or roasted like potatoes[
Young flowering stem - raw, cooked or made into a soup. It tastes like sweet corn.
Seed - cooked. The seed is rather small and fiddly to utilize, but has a pleasant nutty taste when roasted.
An edible oil is obtained from the seed[
]. The seeds contain about 18 - 20% oil, of which69% is linolenic acid[
]. Due to the small size of the seed this is probably not a very worthwhile crop.
Pollen - raw or cooked. A protein rich additive to flour used in making bread, porridge etc[
]. It can also be eaten with the young flowers, which makes it considerably easier to utilize. The pollen is a bright yellow or green colour, and turns pancakes, cookies or biscuits a pretty yellow colour[
The pollen can be harvested by placing the flowering stem over a wide but shallow container and then gently tapping the stem and brushing the pollen off with a fine brush[
]. This will help to pollinate the plant and thereby ensure that both pollen and seeds can be harvested[
Flowering stem - cooked. Tastes like sweet corn.
The pollen is astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, haemostatic[
]. The dried pollen is said to be anticoagulant, but when roasted with charcoal it becomes haemostatic[
]. It is used internally in the treatment of kidney stones, haemorrhage, painful menstruation, abnormal uterine bleeding, post-partum pains, abscesses and cancer of the lymphatic system[
]. It should not be prescribed for pregnant women[
Externally, the pollen is used in the treatment of tapeworms, diarrhoea and injuries[
The stems have many uses, gathered in the autumn they make a good thatch, can be used in making paper, can be woven into mats, chairs, hats etc. They are a good source of biomass, making an excellent addition to the compost heap or used as a source of fuel etc.
A fibre obtained from the leaves can be used for making paper[
] The leaves are harvested in summer, autumn or winter and are soaked in water for 24 hours prior to cooking. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with soda ash and then beaten in a ball mill for 1½ hours. They make a green or brown paper[
The hairs of the fruits are used for stuffing pillows etc. They have good insulating and buoyancy properties and have also been used as a wound dressing and a lining for babies nappies..
The stems can be used to make rush lights. The outer skin is removed except for a small strip, or spine, running the entire length to give stability. The stem is then soaked in oil.
A fibre is obtained from the blossom stem and flowers.
The pollen is highly inflammable, it is used in making fireworks etc.
Seed - surface sow in a pot and stand it in 3cm of water. Pot up the young seedlings as soon as possible and, as the plants develop, increase the depth of water. Plant out in summer.
Division in spring. Very easy, harvest the young shoots when they are about 10 - 30cm tall, making sure there is at least some root attached, and plant them out into their permanent positions.