Abies brunoniana Griff.
Abies brunoniana Lindl.
Abies cedroides Griff. ex Carrière
Abies decidua Wall. ex K.Koch
Abies dumosa (D.Don) Mirb.
Abies yunnanensis Franch.
Micropeuce brunoniana Carrière
Picea brunoniana Spach ex Gordon
Pinus brunoniana Wall.
Pinus decidua Wall. ex Carrière
Pinus dumosa D.Don
Tsuga brunoniana (Wall.) Carrière
Tsuga calcarea Downie
Tsuga chinensis wardii (Downie) A.E.Murray
Tsuga dura Downie
Tsuga intermedia Hand.-Mazz.
Tsuga leptophylla Hand.-Mazz.
Tsuga wardii Downie
Tsuga yunnanensis (Franch.) Mast.
Tsuga dumosa is an evergreen tree with a pyramidal crown; it usually grows 20 - 25 metres tall with specimens up to 40 metres recorded. The straight, cylindrical bole is usually 40 - 100cm in diameter but can be up to 270cm[
The tree is often harvested from the wild for its wood, mainly on a local basis but sometimes commercially.
A widespread and very common species, which although exploited in places, has not undergone a significant decline. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
E. Asia - Himalayas of India, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Myanmar
Mountain slopes, river basins; at elevations from 2,300 - 3,500 metres[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
Tsuga dumosa occurs in the Himalaya at an elevation from 1,700 - 3,500 metres. The climate is moist monsoon, with abundant precipitation, wettest in the eastern Himalayas and Upper Myanmar, where it can receive up to 10,000mm of rain per year[
]. The tree needs a long, frost-free, growing season if it is to thrive, though it can tolerate occasional temperatures falling as low as -10°c[
The tree succeeds in a wide range of habitats, usually on alpine lithosols[
]. In the wild, plants are especially abundant on slopes with a northerly exposure, where it is the most shade tolerant tree[
The tree takes around 20 - 25 years from seed before it starts producing seed[
Its planting is usually limited to arboreta and botanic gardens with living collections of conifers in regions with mild winters and abundant rainfall[
The foliage is sometimes burnt as incense in Buddhist religious shrines[
The bark is a rich source of tannins. It can be used as a dye[
The timber is used for construction and furniture[
Himalayan Hemlock is a timber tree of some importance locally, but considered by Indian foresters to be inferior to several other Himalayan conifers. Its wood can be split into shingles and together with the bark these are traditionally used in the roofing of wooden houses[
Seed - it germinates better if given a short cold stratification[
] and so is best sown in a cold frame in autumn to late winter. It can also be sown in early spring, though it might not germinate until after the next winter. If there is sufficient seed, an outdoor sowing can be made in spring[
]. Pot-grown seedlings are best potted up into individual pots once they are large enough to handle - grow them on in a cold frame and plant them out in early summer of the following year. Trees transplant well when they are up to 80cm tall, but they are best put in their final positions when they are about 30 - 45 cm or less tall, this is usually when they are about 5 - 8 years old[
]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[