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Useful Temperate Plants

Symplocos paniculata

(Thunb.) Miq.

Symplocaceae

+ Synonyms

Crataegus biloba H.Lév.

Crataegus lyi H.Lév.

Prunus mairei H.Lév.

Prunus paniculata Thunb.

Lodhra crataegoides (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Decne.

Palura chinensis (Lour.) Koidz.

Palura odorata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don

Palura paniculata (Thunb.) Nakai

Palura sinica (Ker Gawl.) Miers

Symplocos chinensis (Lour.) Druce

Symplocos crataegoides Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don

Symplocos hunanensis Hand.-Mazz.

Symplocos pallida Franch. & Sav.

Symplocos paniculata Wall. ex D.Don

Symplocos simaoensis Y.Y.Qian

Symplocos sinica Ker Gawl.

Common Name: Asiatic Sweetleaf

No Image.

General Information

Symplocos paniculata is a deciduous shrub, occasionally a small tree, with a spreading habit; it can grow around 3 - 6 metres tall and as much wide[
352
Title
KemperCentreForHomeGardeningPlantFinder
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic cultivation details, plant uses, habitat etc for several thousand species of plants, mainly from the temperate zone.
].
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of materials. It is sometimes grown as an ornamental.

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.

Range

E. Asia - northern India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Laos

Habitat

Forests and shrubberies; at elevations from 1,000 - 2,700 metres[
51
Title
Flowers of the Himalayas.
Publication
 
Author
Polunin. O. and Stainton. A.
Publisher
Oxford Universtiy Press
Year
1984
ISBN
-
Description
A very readable and good pocket guide (if you have a very large pocket!) to many of the wild plants in the Himalayas. Gives many examples of plant uses.
]. Slopes in mixed forests; at elevations from 800 - 2,500 metres[
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitDeciduous Shrub
Height4.00 m
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Symplocos paniculata, at least forms from the northern parts of its range, is a cold-hardy plan, tolerting winter temperatures that can fall below -15°c for short periods. However, the plant also needs hot summers if it is to thrive, often failing in mild, maritime regions[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. The fruits are sometimes spoiled by early autumn frosts[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
1212
Title
New Trees
Publication
 
Author
Grimshaw J.; Bayton R.; Wilks H.
Publisher
Kew Publishing; London
Year
2009
ISBN
1842461737
Description
Provides comprehensive botanical descriptions and horticultural commentary on over 800 tree species that have been introduced to cultivation in recent decades.
].
Succeeds in a sunny position in any well-drained fertile neutral to acid soil[
182
Title
Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7195-5043-2
Description
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
352
Title
KemperCentreForHomeGardeningPlantFinder
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic cultivation details, plant uses, habitat etc for several thousand species of plants, mainly from the temperate zone.
].
The clusters of white flowers are sweetly fragrant[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
, 245. 352].
Self-sterile, it needs cross-pollination with a different plant in the same species if seed and fruit are to be produced[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
182
Title
Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7195-5043-2
Description
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
].
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

Edible Uses

Fruit - cooked[
177
Title
Plants for Human Consumption.
Publication
 
Author
Kunkel. G.
Publisher
Koeltz Scientific Books
Year
1984
ISBN
3874292169
Description
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
]. Used in jams, jellies and sauce[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
]. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

Medicinal

The bark is astringent, cooling and tonic[
240
Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
-
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
]. It is useful in the treatment of menorrhagia, bowel complaints, eye diseases and ulcers[
240
Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
-
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
]. It is also used as a gargle for giving firmness to spongy and bleeding gums[
240
Title
Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Publication
 
Author
Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C.
Publisher
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
Year
1986
ISBN
-
Description
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
]. The juice of the bark is applied externally to sprains and muscular swellings[
272
Title
Plants and People of Nepal
Publication
 
Author
Manandhar. N. P.
Publisher
Timber Press. Oregon.
Year
2002
ISBN
0-88192-527-6
Description
Excellent book, covering over 1,500 species of useful plants from Nepal together with information on the geography and peoples of Nepal. Good descriptions of the plants with terse notes on their uses.
].

The leaves are spasmolytic, antiviral, antiprotozoal, anthelmintic[
2022
Title
Indian Medicinal Plants; An Illustrated Dictionary
Publication
 
Author
Khare C.P. (Ed.)
Publisher
Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg
Year
2007
ISBN
978-0-387-70637-5
Description
 
]. Combined with the juice of a cucumber, they are used in the treatment of diabetes[
2082
Title
Symplocos laurina: an unexplored important medicinal plant of Shola forest system
Publication
Int. J. Med. Arom. Plants Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 366-374, September 2013
Author
Banu S. & Kashyap K.
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
2249-4340
Description
 
].
The bark is used as a tonic for preventing abortion. Other uses are the same as those of Symplocos racemosa[
2022
Title
Indian Medicinal Plants; An Illustrated Dictionary
Publication
 
Author
Khare C.P. (Ed.)
Publisher
Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg
Year
2007
ISBN
978-0-387-70637-5
Description
 
].
The water-soluble fraction from the bark has been reported to exhibit antioxytocic activity[
2022
Title
Indian Medicinal Plants; An Illustrated Dictionary
Publication
 
Author
Khare C.P. (Ed.)
Publisher
Springer-Verlag Berlin/Heidelberg
Year
2007
ISBN
978-0-387-70637-5
Description
 
].

Agroforestry Uses:

When growing in areas polluted by heavy metals this plant has been shown to concentrate various of these metals in its tissues. It has a potential for use in phytoremediation projects as a means of locking these metals up and helping to restore the fertility of the soil[
1623
Title
The evaluation of heavy metal accumulation and application of a comprehensive bio-concentration index for woody spec
Publication
Environ Sci Pollut Res
Author
Xiulian Zhao et al
Website
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-013-2393-3
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
 
]
Many Symplocos species, including this one, are bio-accumulators of aluminum, storing the metal especially in their leaves[
1789
Title
Khartasia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://khartasia-crcc.mnhn.fr/en
Publisher
Centre de Recherche sur la Conservation des Collections; Paris
Year
2020 (Accessed)
ISBN
 
Description
A website containing information on almost 100 species (as of March 2020) of fibre-producing plants that are used in paper making in eastern Asia. An excellent and developing resource.
].

Other Uses

Many species in this genus accumulate aluminium, especially in their leaves and bark. Those species where the leaves turn yellow upon drying contain the largest quantities of aluminiun (up to 4.2% dry weight). Thus many Symplocos species can be used as the source of a yellow dye, and can also be used as a mordant[
451
Title
Flora Malesiana Series 1
Publication
 
Author
Various
Website
http://www.archive.org
Publisher
Nationaal Herbarium Nederiand, Universiteit Leiden branch
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A massive treatment of the plants of the Malaysian Archipelago. Much of it has been made available to download from the Internet
,
2082
Title
Symplocos laurina: an unexplored important medicinal plant of Shola forest system
Publication
Int. J. Med. Arom. Plants Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 366-374, September 2013
Author
Banu S. & Kashyap K.
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
2249-4340
Description
 
,
2086
Title
Revision of the Symplocaceae of the Old World; New Caledonia excepted.
Publication
 
Author
Nooteboom H.P.
Publisher
Universitaire Pers Leiden, Netherlands
Year
1975
ISBN
90-6021-248-7
Description
 
].
The ashes produced by combustion of the plant can be used as mordant because they contain a high concentration of aluminum[
1789
Title
Khartasia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://khartasia-crcc.mnhn.fr/en
Publisher
Centre de Recherche sur la Conservation des Collections; Paris
Year
2020 (Accessed)
ISBN
 
Description
A website containing information on almost 100 species (as of March 2020) of fibre-producing plants that are used in paper making in eastern Asia. An excellent and developing resource.
].
The leaves are also a rich source of aluminium. When dried and ground into a powder they can be directly employed as a mordant[
168
Title
Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Grae. I.
Publisher
MacMillan Publishing Co. New York.
Year
1974
ISBN
0-02-544950-8
Description
A very good and readable book on dyeing.
,
1789
Title
Khartasia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://khartasia-crcc.mnhn.fr/en
Publisher
Centre de Recherche sur la Conservation des Collections; Paris
Year
2020 (Accessed)
ISBN
 
Description
A website containing information on almost 100 species (as of March 2020) of fibre-producing plants that are used in paper making in eastern Asia. An excellent and developing resource.
].
A yellow or red dye is obtained from the leaves and bark[
51
Title
Flowers of the Himalayas.
Publication
 
Author
Polunin. O. and Stainton. A.
Publisher
Oxford Universtiy Press
Year
1984
ISBN
-
Description
A very readable and good pocket guide (if you have a very large pocket!) to many of the wild plants in the Himalayas. Gives many examples of plant uses.
,
146
Title
A Manual of Indian Timbers.
Publication
 
Author
Gamble. J. S.
Publisher
Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
Year
1972
ISBN
-
Description
First written in the 19th century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.
,
158
Title
Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur.
Publication
 
Author
Gupta. B. L.
Publisher
Forest Research Institute Press
Year
1945
ISBN
-
Description
A good flora for the middle Himalayan forests, sparsly illustrated. Not really for the casual reader.
,
272
Title
Plants and People of Nepal
Publication
 
Author
Manandhar. N. P.
Publisher
Timber Press. Oregon.
Year
2002
ISBN
0-88192-527-6
Description
Excellent book, covering over 1,500 species of useful plants from Nepal together with information on the geography and peoples of Nepal. Good descriptions of the plants with terse notes on their uses.
]. A yellow dye, it is mostly used as a base for red dyes[
1789
Title
Khartasia
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://khartasia-crcc.mnhn.fr/en
Publisher
Centre de Recherche sur la Conservation des Collections; Paris
Year
2020 (Accessed)
ISBN
 
Description
A website containing information on almost 100 species (as of March 2020) of fibre-producing plants that are used in paper making in eastern Asia. An excellent and developing resource.
].

Wood - white, soft to moderately hard. close grained, liable to twist and split when seasoning. Of possible use in turnery[
146
Title
A Manual of Indian Timbers.
Publication
 
Author
Gamble. J. S.
Publisher
Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
Year
1972
ISBN
-
Description
First written in the 19th century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.
,
158
Title
Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur.
Publication
 
Author
Gupta. B. L.
Publisher
Forest Research Institute Press
Year
1945
ISBN
-
Description
A good flora for the middle Himalayan forests, sparsly illustrated. Not really for the casual reader.
].

Propagation

Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Stored seed requires stratification and is best sown in a cold frame in late winter, it can take 12 months to germinate[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the cold frame for their first winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, mid summer in individual pots in a cold frame[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Roots are formed in about 4 weeks. Good percentage[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2024-06-15. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Symplocos+paniculata>

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