The genus Rubus, (especially the blackberries, which are often loosely referred to as Rubus fruticosus agg.) presents some of the most difficult taxonomic problems. This is partly due to the frequency of polyploidy; also to the frequent occurrence of hybridization; and also due to apomixis, where minor differences between plants are preserved because seedlings are genetically identical to their parent. As a result, differences of opinion on the number of species to be recognized from a given region can vary tremendously (for example, a treatment by M. L. Fernald[
] in 1950 recognized 205 species for the northern half of the eastern United States plus parts of southeastern Canada, whilst H. A. Gleason and A. Cronquist in 1991 recognized only 25)[
]. Where possible, a relatively conservative approach is taken here[
Rubus condruzensis Aigret
Rubus cubirianus (H.E.Weber) G.H.Loos
Rubus exaltatus fastigiatus (Weihe & Nees) Dumort.
Rubus exaltatus nitidus (Weihe & Nees ex Lasch) Dumort.
Rubus fastigiatus Weihe & Nees,p.p.21693
Rubus fruticosus fastigiatus (Weihe & Nees) Schübler & G.Martens
Rubus fruticosus nitidus Weihe & Nees ex Lasch
Rubus fruticosus suberectus (G.Anderson ex Hartm.) Syme
Rubus fruticosus sylvaticus Sond.
Rubus fruticosus umbrosus Hegetschw.
Rubus heptaphyllus Opiz
Rubus heterocaulon Ortmann
Rubus heterophyllus Host
Rubus hybridus Vest
Rubus micracanthus Kaltenb.
Rubus microacanthus Kaltenb.
Rubus nitidus Weihe & Nees,p.p.21693
Rubus nutans Vest
Rubus plicatus avellanifolius Kőhler ex Weihe
Rubus plicatus fastigiatus (Weihe & Nees) Weihe
Rubus plicatus nitidus (Weihe & Nees ex Lasch) Focke,p.p.
Rubus pseudoidaeus P.J.Müll.
Rubus rhamnifolius nitidus (Weihe & Nees ex Lasch) T.B.Salter,p.p.
Rubus sextus (E.H.L.Krause) E.H.L.Krause
Rubus suberectus G.Anderson ex Sm.
Rubus subinermis Rupr.
Rubus variabilis nitidus (Weihe & Nees ex Lasch) Ruthe,p.p.
Rubus viridis J.Presl ex Ortmann
Rubus nessensis is a deciduous shrub producing a cluster of sparsely-armed, biennial stems up to 300cm tall from a woody rootstock. The stems only produce leaves in their first year, forming flower-bearing branches in the second year of growth and dying after fruiting[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food.
Europe - Norway to Britain and France, east to southern Russia, Ukraine and Romania
Woods and heaths, usually on very acid soils[
]. Forests and forest margins, riverbanks, bog edges[
Easily grown in a good well-drained loamy soil in sun or semi-shade[
]. Succeeds on very acid soils[
The plant produces apomictic flowers, these produce fruit and viable seed without fertilization, each seedling is a genetic copy of the parent[
Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[
Fruit - raw or cooked[
]. Agreeably acid[
], it is a blackberry with a raspberry flavour[
A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit[
Seed - requires stratification and is best sown in early autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires one month stratification at about 3°c and is best sown as early as possible in the year. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring of the following year.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, mid summer in a frame[
Tip layering in July. Plant out in autumn.
Division in early spring or just before leaf-fall in the autumn[