The genus Rubus, (especially the blackberries, which are often loosely referred to as Rubus fruticosus agg.) presents some of the most difficult taxonomic problems. This is partly due to the frequency of polyploidy; also to the frequent occurrence of hybridization; and also due to apomixis, where minor differences between plants are preserved because seedlings are genetically identical to their parent. As a result, differences of opinion on the number of species to be recognized from a given region can vary tremendously (for example, a treatment by M. L. Fernald[
] in 1950 recognized 205 species for the northern half of the eastern United States plus parts of southeastern Canada, whilst H. A. Gleason and A. Cronquist in 1991 recognized only 25)[
]. Where possible, a relatively conservative approach is taken here[
Rubus asper glaber (Koidz.) C.F.Hsieh
Rubus cardotii Koidz.
Rubus euphlebophyllus Hayata
Rubus piptopetalus Hayata ex Koidz.
Rubus rosifolius formosanus Cardot
Rubus rubro-angustifolius Sasaki
Rubus sphaerocephalus Hayata
Rubus croceanthus is a sub-erect to scrambling, deciduous shrub producing each year a cluster of prickly, biennial stems from a woody rootstock; the stems can be up to 100cm tall[
]. The stems only produce leaves, and do not flower, in their first year of growth, forming flowering branches in their second year and then dying after fruiting.
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food.
E. Asia - Taiwan, central and southern Japan, Korea, northern India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam
Forest clearings, forest margins, roadsides, landslides, grasslands, river banks; from sea level to medium elevations[
Rubus croceacanthus grows from near sea level to elevations in excess of 3,500 metres from the warm temperate zone of southern China and Japan, south to the more tropical regions of southeastern Asia. It is unlikely to succeed outdoors in areas of the temperate zone with very cold winters.
Species in this genus are generally easily grown in a good well-drained loamy soil in sun or semi-shade[
Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[
Fruit - raw or cooked[
]. The red, subglobose or ovoid, rarely ellipsoid fruit is 10 - 20mm in diameter[
Seed - requires stratification and is best sown in early autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires one month stratification at about 3°c and is best sown as early as possible in the year. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring of the following year.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, mid summer in a frame[
Tip layering in July. Plant out in autumn.
Division in early spring or just before leaf-fall in the autumn[