Rosa × rudiuscula Greene
Rosa humilis Marshall
Rosa lyonii Pursh
Rosa mexicana S.Watson
Rosa palmeri Rydb.
Rosa pratensis Raf.
Rosa pusilla Raf.
Rosa serrulata Raf.
Rosa subserrulata Rydb.
Rosa texarkana Rydb.
Rosa virginiana humilis (Marshall) C.K.Schneid.
Common Name: Pasture Rose
Rosa carolina is a prickly, deciduous shrub with openly-branched, spreading and weak stems that can sometimes be erect; it can grow up to 1.50 metres tall, suckering freely to form small thickets[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and medicine. It is occasionally cultivated as an ornamental[
There is a layer of hairs around the seeds just beneath the flesh of the fruit. These hairs can cause irritation to the mouth and digestive tract if ingested.
Eastern N. America - Ontario to Quebec and Nova Scotia, south to Texas, Georgia and Florida
Pastures, woodlands, glades, openings in woodlands, dry forests and woodlands, roadsides, stream banks, rocky ravines, ledges, bluffs, power line rights-of-way; at elevations up to 1,100 metres[
|Cultivation Status||Ornamental, Wild
Rosa carolina is a very cold-hardy plant, being able to tolerate temperatures down to around -30°c when fully dormant[
Most Rosa species require a sunny position if they are to flourish and flower well. They prefer a circumneutral pH, succeeding in a range of soil texturess so long as they are moist but well-drained[
Plants produce suckers[
There are some named forms selected for their ornamental value[
Rose species will often hybridize freely with other members of the genus[
Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[
Fruit - raw or cooked[
]. Tasty but sour[
]. The fruit can be made into syrup and jam[
]. The red or orange-red, globose or depressed-globose, rarely ellipsoid fruit can be 7 - 14mm × 6 - 15mm[
], but there is only a thin layer of flesh surrounding the many seeds[
]. Some care has to be taken when eating this fruit, see the notes above on known hazards.
Flowers - raw or cooked. They can be added to salads[
]. A delicious taste[
]. Normally it is just the petals that are eaten, the white base of the petal is removed since this often has a bitter taste[
The seed of roses is generally a good source of vitamin E, it can be ground and mixed with flour or added to other foods as a supplement[
]. Be sure to remove the seed hairs[
The fruit skins have been eaten in the treatment of stomach complaints[
The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of cancers[
Rose species in general grow well with alliums, parsley, mignonette and lupins[
]. Garlic planted nearby can help protect the plant from disease and insect predation[
]. Roses often grow badly with boxwood[
Seed. Rose seed often takes two years to germinate. This is because it may need a warm spell of weather after a cold spell in order to mature the embryo and reduce the seedcoat[
]. One possible way to reduce this time is to scarify the seed and then place it for 2 - 3 weeks in damp peat at a temperature of 27 - 32°c (by which time the seed should have imbibed). It is then kept at 3°c for the next 4 months by which time it should be starting to germinate[
]. Alternatively, it is possible that seed harvested 'green' (when it is fully developed but before it has dried on the plant) and sown immediately will germinate in the late winter. This method has not as yet(1988) been fully tested[
]. Seed sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame sometimes germinates in spring though it may take 18 months. Stored seed can be sown as early in the year as possible and stratified for 6 weeks at 5°c[
]. It may take 2 years to germinate[
]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Plant out in the summer if the plants are more than 25cm tall, otherwise grow on in a cold frame for the winter and plant out in late spring.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July in a shaded frame. Overwinter the plants in the frame and plant out in late spring[
]. High percentage[
Cuttings of mature wood of the current seasons growth. Select pencil thick shoots in early autumn that are about 20 - 25cm long and plant them in a sheltered position outdoors or in a cold frame[
]. The cuttings can take 12 months to establish but a high percentage of them normally succeed[
Division of suckers in the dormant season. Plant them out direct into their permanent positions.
Layering. Takes 12 months[