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Useful Temperate Plants

Pistacia atlantica

Desf.

Anacardiaceae

+ Synonyms

Lentiscus atlantica (Desf.) Kuntze

Lentiscus mutica (Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Kuntze

Pistacia cabulica Stocks

Pistacia chia Desf.

Pistacia choulettei Gand.

Pistacia mutica Fisch. & C.A.Mey.

Terebinthus atlanticus (Desf.) Dum.Cours.

Common Name: Betoum

No Image.

General Information

Pistacia atlantica is a deciduous to semi-evergreen shrub or a tree forming a dense, wide, rounded crown; it can grow from 3 - 15 metres tall[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
,
1636
Title
Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Pistacia L. (Anacardiaceae)
Publication
American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2012, 3, 12-32
Author
AL-Saghir M.G. & Porter D.M.
Website
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2012.31002
Publisher
 
Year
2012
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
The plant is commonly harvested from the wild, having a wide range of uses as a food, medicine, and source of various materials[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
]. It is also grown as an ornamental and shade tree[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
].
Pistacia atlantica has a large range, but it is scattered and often occasional through much of that. The population size and habitats are in continuous degradation and decline due to numerous threats especially: ruthless collection for domestic uses as forage or firewood and for trade. Collection practices and overgrazing prevent natural regeneration and the development of young shoots; deforestation, desertification, erosion of habitats and insects attacks add to the pressures on this species. The plant is also heavily collected by locals and collectors for use as a remedy and to trade both nationally and for international export. The bad collection practices of the wild species are destroying the entire species and preventing it from growing again. The plant is threatened more generally by the indirect impact of human activities such as leisure activities, tourism, infrastructure development. The plant is classified as 'Near Threatened' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2018)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

The raw resin without any prior treatment is reported as toxic[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Botanical References

11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
1636
Title
Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Pistacia L. (Anacardiaceae)
Publication
American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2012, 3, 12-32
Author
AL-Saghir M.G. & Porter D.M.
Website
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2012.31002
Publisher
 
Year
2012
ISBN
 
Description
 

Range

S.E. Europe - Ukraine and Greece, through Turkey and Crimea to Pakistan and northwest India; Africa - Macaronesia, N. Africa to the Levant and Arabia

Habitat

Scattered, on dry hillsides, cemeteries, field edges and roadsides; at elevations up to 1,500 metres in Turkey[
93
Title
Flora of Turkey.
Publication
 
Author
Davis. P. H.
Publisher
Edinburgh University Press
Year
1965
ISBN
-
Description
Not for the casual reader, this is an immense work in many volumes. Some details of plant uses and habitats.
]. Stony hillsides, steep dry slopes, limestone and sandstone hills; at elevations from 30 - 2,500 metres[
1636
Title
Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Pistacia L. (Anacardiaceae)
Publication
American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2012, 3, 12-32
Author
AL-Saghir M.G. & Porter D.M.
Website
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2012.31002
Publisher
 
Year
2012
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

Properties

Conservation StatusNear Threatened
Edibility Rating *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitDeciduous Tree
Height8.00 m
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Pistacia atlantica has a remarkable ecological amplitude with great plasticity, able to thrive in arid Saharan areas, semi-arid forests, as well as in open areas and moister regions within agricultural landscapes[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
]. The species is not very cold-hardy, however, tolerating short periods with temperatures falling to around -5°c and only succeeding outdoors in the milder regions of the temperate zone. It requires hot summers if it is to thrive, in cooler regions the wood does not ripen fully and is more susceptible to damage by cold in the winter..
Requires a sunny position in a deep well-drained light soil[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Succeeds in dry soils. This species can grow in most soil types except sandy soil and does not require irrigation to survive. It prefers open and sunny habitats but can be found in mid-shaded habitats[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
This species is sometimes grown near Pistacia vera, the pistachio, as a pollinator[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
].
Any pruning that needs to be done is best carried out in the spring[
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
].
Plants are prone to fungal root rots[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
A dioecious species, both male and female forms must be grown if seed is required.

Edible Uses

Fruit - raw[
61
Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
,
177
Title
Plants for Human Consumption.
Publication
 
Author
Kunkel. G.
Publisher
Koeltz Scientific Books
Year
1984
ISBN
3874292169
Description
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
,
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
]. A turpentine flavour[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
]. The fruit is about 8mm long and 6mm wide and contains a single seed[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

An excellent edible oil is obtained from the seed[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
].

A resin obtained from the bark is used as a chewing gum[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

The young leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable[
1639
Title
Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): A Review of Their Tradi
Publication
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2013, Article ID 219815, 33 pages
Author
Bozorgi M. et al
Website
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/219815
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
A very comprehensive review of the traditional uses and modern medicinal research into five species of Pistacia growing in Iran
].

Medicinal

A resin obtained from the bark is antiseptic, appetizer, astringent, carminative, demulcent, digestive, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, hepatic, laxative, stomachic and tonic. It is used as chewing gum to purify the breath, strengthen the gums etc. It is also commonly used to treat stomach infections, digestive disorders, peptic ulcers, kidney and liver diseases, sterility, and respiratory infections[
93
Title
Flora of Turkey.
Publication
 
Author
Davis. P. H.
Publisher
Edinburgh University Press
Year
1965
ISBN
-
Description
Not for the casual reader, this is an immense work in many volumes. Some details of plant uses and habitats.
,
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
,
1639
Title
Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): A Review of Their Tradi
Publication
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2013, Article ID 219815, 33 pages
Author
Bozorgi M. et al
Website
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/219815
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
A very comprehensive review of the traditional uses and modern medicinal research into five species of Pistacia growing in Iran
]. It is chewed to freshen the breath[
1639
Title
Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): A Review of Their Tradi
Publication
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2013, Article ID 219815, 33 pages
Author
Bozorgi M. et al
Website
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/219815
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
A very comprehensive review of the traditional uses and modern medicinal research into five species of Pistacia growing in Iran
].
Applied externally, it is used as an antiseptic on wounds, to treat skin conditions such as scabies, as a resolutive for furuncles and as a depilatory[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
,
1639
Title
Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): A Review of Their Tradi
Publication
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2013, Article ID 219815, 33 pages
Author
Bozorgi M. et al
Website
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/219815
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
A very comprehensive review of the traditional uses and modern medicinal research into five species of Pistacia growing in Iran
].

The fruit is cardiac stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, sudorific and tonic. It is used in the treatment of asthma, coughs and chest diseases; mouth diseases and dental problems; stomach disorders, diarrhoea etc (crushed nut of the fruit); stress[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
,
1639
Title
Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): A Review of Their Tradi
Publication
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2013, Article ID 219815, 33 pages
Author
Bozorgi M. et al
Website
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/219815
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
A very comprehensive review of the traditional uses and modern medicinal research into five species of Pistacia growing in Iran
].

The leaves are diuretic. They are used to treat diabetes, eye infections[
1639
Title
Five Pistacia species (P. vera, P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, P. khinjuk, and P. lentiscus): A Review of Their Tradi
Publication
The Scientific World Journal, Volume 2013, Article ID 219815, 33 pages
Author
Bozorgi M. et al
Website
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/219815
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
A very comprehensive review of the traditional uses and modern medicinal research into five species of Pistacia growing in Iran
].

Other Uses

Seedlings are used as a nematode and fungi resistant rootstock for Pistacia vera, the pistachio nut[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
,
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
,
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

A resin obtained from the bark of the tree is used in preparations of certain cosmetic products and perfumery, as an ingredient in conservative odontology, in the production of glue, restoration of works of art in glass, porcelain, wood and metal[
117
Title
The Book of Edible Nuts.
Publication
 
Author
Rosengarten. jnr. F.
Publisher
Walker & Co.
Year
1984
ISBN
0802707699
Description
A very readable and comprehensive guide. Well illustrated.
,
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Tannin is obtained from galls that develop on the tree as a result of a fungus. It is used to make an ink and a dye[
61
Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
].
The leaves contain 22.2% tannin[
223
Title
Vegetable Tannins
Publication
 
Author
Rottsieper. E.H.W.
Publisher
The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd.
Year
1946
ISBN
-
Description
A fairly detailed treatise on the major sources of vegetable tannins.
].

The seeds are used for tanning and for soap-making[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

The dark-coloured wood is finely-grained, very hard[
146
Title
A Manual of Indian Timbers.
Publication
 
Author
Gamble. J. S.
Publisher
Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh
Year
1972
ISBN
-
Description
First written in the 19th century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.
]. It is suitable for turnery[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
]. ( As subspecies mutica)
The wood is commonly harvested from the wild for use as a fuel[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Propagation

Pre-soak the seed for 16 hours in alkalized water[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
], or for 3 - 4 days in warm water[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
], and sow late winter in a cold frame or greenhouse[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
,
113
Title
The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
Publication
 
Author
Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
Publisher
Athens Ga. Varsity Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0942375009
Description
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
]. Two months cold stratification may speed up germination, so it might be better to sow the seed in early winter[
113
Title
The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
Publication
 
Author
Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
Publisher
Athens Ga. Varsity Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0942375009
Description
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
]. The germination is variable and can be slow. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse. Plant out into their permanent positions in early summer and consider giving some protection from winter cold for their first year or two outdoors[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].
Cuttings of half-ripe wood from juvenile trees, July in a frame[
113
Title
The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
Publication
 
Author
Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
Publisher
Athens Ga. Varsity Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0942375009
Description
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
].
Layering.
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2023-01-28. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Pistacia+atlantica>

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