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Useful Temperate Plants

Phoenix canariensis

H.Wildpret

Arecaceae

+ Synonyms

Phoenix cycadifolia Regel

Phoenix dactylifera jubae Webb & Berthel

Phoenix erecta Sauv.

Phoenix jubae (Webb & Berthel.) Webb ex Christ

Phoenix macrocarpa Sauv.

Phoenix vigieri Naudin

Common Name:

No Image.

General Information

Phoenix canariensis is a single-stemmed, evergreen palm tree producing a crown of leaves at the top of an unbranched stem. The stem is usually up to 15 metres tall, occasionally reaching 20 metres, and is up to 120cm in diameter (excluding leaf sheaths). The arching leaves can be are around 5 - 6 metres long[
1737
Title
A Monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae; Coryphoidede)
Publication
Kew Bulletin Vol 53, 3, 513-575, 1998
Author
Barrow S.C.
Website
http://10.2307/4110478
Publisher
 
Year
1998
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
The plant is commonly harvested from the wild for its sweet-tasting sap, and also provides fibrous leaves that are used locally to weave into various products. This is one of the most commonly grown ornamentals in the world, and it is extensively cultivated in warm temperate regions as a street tree or garden plant[
1737
Title
A Monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae; Coryphoidede)
Publication
Kew Bulletin Vol 53, 3, 513-575, 1998
Author
Barrow S.C.
Website
http://10.2307/4110478
Publisher
 
Year
1998
ISBN
 
Description
 
]
Phoenix canariensis is endemic to the Canary Islands but with a much wider non-native distribution due to its widespread use in cultivation. The species is impacted by hybridisation with the Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) as well as infestation by weevil pests and increased fires and habitat loss. However the species is found in several protected areas and is protected by law. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2017)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
The plant is one of the most commonly grown and appreciated ornamental palms of the world. It has recently been noted naturalising and becoming invasive in southern California and northern New Zealand, mostly in riverine wetland and coastal habitats. Planted widely, the seeds are eaten and spread by birds, and can be washed down watercourses where established. However, control is likely to prove less difficult as compared with other invasive plants[
1093
Title
Invasive Species Compendium
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.cabi.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An immense resource - in depth information on over 900 species of invasive plants (it also has information on animals, fungi etc).
]..

Known Hazards

The plant is known as a cause of bronchial asthma in certain individuals, caused by the palm fronds as they senesce and dry out[
1093
Title
Invasive Species Compendium
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.cabi.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An immense resource - in depth information on over 900 species of invasive plants (it also has information on animals, fungi etc).
].

Botanical References

1737
Title
A Monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae; Coryphoidede)
Publication
Kew Bulletin Vol 53, 3, 513-575, 1998
Author
Barrow S.C.
Website
http://10.2307/4110478
Publisher
 
Year
1998
ISBN
 
Description
 

Range

Macaronesia - Canary Islands

Habitat

Often forming large groves, it is found in or near ravines, often close to Salix canariensis habitat, and colluvial soils within thermophilous forest and Euphorbia shrub; at elevations up to 1,200 metres[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Properties

Conservation StatusLeast Concern
Edibility Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height12.00 m
Growth RateSlow
PollinatorsWind, ?Insects
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Phoenix canariensis is native to a warm temperate or subtropical climate, where it can be found at elevations up to 1,200 metres. Young plants are very sensitive to frost, though older plants become tolerant of light frosts. It can tolerate a dry season of 4 - 8 months[
1093
Title
Invasive Species Compendium
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.cabi.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An immense resource - in depth information on over 900 species of invasive plants (it also has information on animals, fungi etc).
].
Requires a sunny position, succeeding in most soils so long as the drainage is excellent[
974
Title
Encyclopedia of Tropical Plants - Identification and Cultivation of over 3,000 Tropical Plants
Publication
 
Author
Ahmed Fayaz
Publisher
Firefly Books Ltd.; New Zealand
Year
2011
ISBN
978-1-55407-489
Description
A good photograph and terse but detailed information for over 3,000 species of tropical plants. An excellent reference.
]. Plants can tolerate short periods of standing water as a result of heavy rains[
1093
Title
Invasive Species Compendium
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.cabi.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An immense resource - in depth information on over 900 species of invasive plants (it also has information on animals, fungi etc).
]. Tolerant of strong, salt-laden winds and of urban air pollution[
1093
Title
Invasive Species Compendium
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.cabi.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An immense resource - in depth information on over 900 species of invasive plants (it also has information on animals, fungi etc).
].
The plant can live for two or three centuries, although it is slow growing and does not flower until 6 - 10 years old[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
,
1093
Title
Invasive Species Compendium
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.cabi.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An immense resource - in depth information on over 900 species of invasive plants (it also has information on animals, fungi etc).
].
Phoenix species are quite liable to hybridize where the various species meet as a result of cultivation[
1737
Title
A Monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae; Coryphoidede)
Publication
Kew Bulletin Vol 53, 3, 513-575, 1998
Author
Barrow S.C.
Website
http://10.2307/4110478
Publisher
 
Year
1998
ISBN
 
Description
 
]. This species is known to hybridize readily with Phoenix dactylifera[
1093
Title
Invasive Species Compendium
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.cabi.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An immense resource - in depth information on over 900 species of invasive plants (it also has information on animals, fungi etc).
].
A dioecious species, both male and female forms need to be grown if fruit and seed are required[
1737
Title
A Monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae; Coryphoidede)
Publication
Kew Bulletin Vol 53, 3, 513-575, 1998
Author
Barrow S.C.
Website
http://10.2307/4110478
Publisher
 
Year
1998
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

Edible Uses

Inflorescence buds are tapped for the sweet sap which is eaten as palm honey[
1737
Title
A Monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae; Coryphoidede)
Publication
Kew Bulletin Vol 53, 3, 513-575, 1998
Author
Barrow S.C.
Website
http://10.2307/4110478
Publisher
 
Year
1998
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
Palm honey is produced from sap (guarapo) harvested from the palm, especially on La Gomera and the harvest is economically significant[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
]

Fruit[
1093
Title
Invasive Species Compendium
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.cabi.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An immense resource - in depth information on over 900 species of invasive plants (it also has information on animals, fungi etc).
]. Fleshy[
1093
Title
Invasive Species Compendium
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.cabi.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An immense resource - in depth information on over 900 species of invasive plants (it also has information on animals, fungi etc).
]. Rarely consumed, it is not very tasty and often very astringent[
1093
Title
Invasive Species Compendium
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.cabi.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An immense resource - in depth information on over 900 species of invasive plants (it also has information on animals, fungi etc).
]. The obovoid fruit is around 15 - 20mm long and 12mm wide, ripening from yellow- green to golden-yellow and containing a single, large seed[
1093
Title
Invasive Species Compendium
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.cabi.org
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An immense resource - in depth information on over 900 species of invasive plants (it also has information on animals, fungi etc).
,
1737
Title
A Monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae; Coryphoidede)
Publication
Kew Bulletin Vol 53, 3, 513-575, 1998
Author
Barrow S.C.
Website
http://10.2307/4110478
Publisher
 
Year
1998
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

Medicinal

None known

Agroforestry Uses:

Especially when growing in drier areas, the plant is seen as an indicator of ground water[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Other Uses

The fibrous leaflets are used in much the same way as those of P. dactylifera for a range of woven products including crosses for Palm Sunday celebrations[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
,
1737
Title
A Monograph of Phoenix L. (Palmae; Coryphoidede)
Publication
Kew Bulletin Vol 53, 3, 513-575, 1998
Author
Barrow S.C.
Website
http://10.2307/4110478
Publisher
 
Year
1998
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

An extract of the leaves is used as an ingredient in commercial cosmetic preparations as a skin protector[
1243
Title
CosIng
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/cosing/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
CosIng is the European Commission database for information on cosmetic substances and ingredients.
].

The stems are used locally for construction[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Propagation

Seed -
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2024-07-14. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Phoenix+canariensis>

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