Cicerbita corymbosa Wallr.
Cicerbita quercina Wallr.
Hieracium quercinum E.H.L.Krause
Lactuca altissima M.Bieb.
Lactuca armena Boiss.
Lactuca augustana Rchb. ex Nyman
Lactuca chaixii Vill.
Lactuca lipskyi Krasch.
Lactuca sagittata Waldst. & Kit.
Lactuca stricta Waldst. & Kit.
Lactuca vialea Bellardi
Lactucopsis altissima Sch.Bip. ex Vis.
Lactucopsis chaixi Sch.Bip. ex Vis.
Lactucopsis quercina Sch.Bip. ex Vis.
Lactucopsis wilhelmsiana Sch.Bip. ex Vis.
Mulgedium quercinum (L.) C.Jeffrey
Prenanthes altissima Pall.
Common Name: Wild Lettuce
Lactuca quercina is an annual to biennial plant growing from a thickened rootstock. It produces a basal rosette of leaves and a central stem 50 - 200cm tall, though more commonly 80 - 150cm tall[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and medicine
Although no specific mention of toxicity has been seen for this species, many plants in this genus contain a narcotic principle, this is at its most concentrated when the plant begins to flower. This principle has been almost bred out of the cultivated forms of lettuce but is produced when the plant starts to go to seed[
Europe - Sweden to Germany and France, east to eastern European Russia, Caucasus and Iran. Also in western Himalayas.
Woods and scrub[
]. Deciduous forests and forest edges from lowland to montane regions[
Prefers a light sandy loam[
]. Requires a nitrogen-rich soil[
Cultivated, especially in France[
]. (Is this for its medicinal properties?[
Leaves - raw or cooked[
The whole plant is rich in a milky sap that flows freely from any wounds. This hardens and dries when in contact with the air[
]. The sap contains 'lactucarium', which is used in medicine for its anodyne, antispasmodic, digestive, diuretic, hypnotic, narcotic and sedative properties[
]. Lactucarium has the effects of a feeble opium, but without its tendency to cause digestive upsets[
], nor is it addictive[
]. It is taken internally in the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, neuroses, hyperactivity in children, dry coughs, whooping cough, rheumatic pain etc[
]. Concentrations of lactucarium are low in young plants and most concentrated when the plant comes into flower[
]. It is collected commercially by cutting the heads of the plants and scraping the juice into china vessels several times a day until the plant is exhausted[
]. An infusion of the fresh or dried flowering plant can also be used[
The plant should be used with caution, and never without the supervision of a skilled practitioner. Even normal doses can cause drowsiness whilst excess causes restlessness[
] and overdoses can cause death through cardiac paralysis[
Some physicians believe that any effects of this medicine are caused by the mind of the patient rather than by the medicine[
The sap has also been applied externally in the treatment of warts[
Seed - sow spring in situ and only just cover the seed. Germination is usually fairly quick.