Juglans ailantifolia cordiformis
Juglans cordiformis Maxim.
Juglans sieboldiana cordiformis Makino
Common Name: Heartseed Walnut
Juglans ailantiifolia cordiformis is a deciduous tree that can grow up to 20.00 metres tall.
This is a horticultural variant of Juglans ailantifolia with flattened, heart-shaped nuts with relatively thin shells. It is cultivated for these seeds and is also used in breeding programmes.
E. Asia - Japan.
This is the hardiest member of the genus, capable of growing in all areas of Britain[
]. When dormant, the tree has been known to survive temperatures down to -40°c - the youngest wood was killed, but the tree quickly regenerated the following year[
]. New growth, however, is much less hardy and can be damaged by temperatures just above freezing. The tree also requires a hot growing season if it is to fully ripen its wood and be able to tolerate the lower temperatures[
Requires a deep well-drained loam and a sunny position sheltered from strong winds[
]. Prefers a slightly alkaline soil[
This is a form of Juglans ailanthifolia with a thinner shell and a better tasting nut. It is cultivated for its edible seed in Japan and has the potential for producing very superior nuts, especially if hybridized with Juglans cinerea[
]. There are some named varieties[
Trees can come into bearing within 3 - 4 years from seed[
Even when grown on a site exposed to strong, salt-laden winds in Cornwall (southwest England), the seedlingd grow away vigorously, flowering and producing seeds in their eighth year of growth (by which time they were becoming more sheltered from the wind as a result of shelterbelt plantings)[
Flower initiation depends upon suitable conditions in the previous summer[
]. The flowers and young growths can be destroyed by even short periods down to -2°c, but fortunately plants are usually late coming into leaf[
Plants produce a deep taproot and they are intolerant of root disturbance[
]. Seedlings should be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and given some protection since they are somewhat tender when young[
Any pruning should only be carried out in late summer to early autumn or when the plant is fully dormant otherwise wounds will bleed profusely and this will severely weaken the tree[
The plant is said to be resistant to the attacks of most insects[
Seed - raw or cooked[
]. They are also used in sweets, pies etc[
]. A mild and pleasant flavour, they can be eaten in quantity for dessert[
]. The shell is thin and easily cracked[
]. It is considered to be superior in taste to C. ailanthifolia.
An edible oil is obtained from the seed[
], though it tends to go rancid quickly.
Young buds (leaf?) and peduncles - cooked[
The bark is anthelmintic, astringent, diuretic, lithontripic, pectoral, skin, tonic (kidneys)[
Species in this genus can produce chemicals which inhibit the growth of other plants. These chemicals are dissolved out of the leaves when it rains and are washed down to the ground below, reducing the growth of plants under the tree[
The roots of many members of this genus produce substances that are toxic to many plant species, especially apples (Malus species), members of the Ericaceae, Potentilla spp and the white pines (certain Pinus spp.)[
A brown dye is obtained from the seed husks and the bark[
]. Rich in tannin, it does not require a mordant.
The bark is rich in tannin. It is used as a dye and also medicinally[
Wood - soft, light, not easily cracked, of good quality. Used for cabinet making etc[
The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in individual deep pots in a cold frame[
]. You need to protect it from mice, birds, squirrels etc. The seed usually germinates in late winter or the spring. Plant out the seedlings into their permanent positions in early summer and give some protection from the cold for their first winter or two.
The seed can also be stored in cool moist conditions (such s the salad compartment of a fridge) over the winter and sown in early spring but it may then require a period of cold stratification before it will germinate[