Fraxinus bracteata Hemsl.
Fraxinus eedenii Boerl. & Koord.
Fraxinus floribunda integerrima Wenz.
Fraxinus formosana Hayata
Fraxinus guilinensis S.K.Lee & F.N.Wei
Fraxinus minutepunctata Hayata
Fraxinus philippinensis Merr.
Fraxinus retusa koshunensis K.Mori
Fraxinus sasakii Masam.
Ligustrum vaniotii H.Lév.
Fraxinus griffithii is a semideciduous tree growing up to 50 metres tall, but only to 20 metres in China. The bole is up to 90cm in diameter[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine and source of wood. It was at one time believed to be an opium substitute but, although the smell is similar, it does not contain opiates. It is a natural pioneer species and can be used in reforestation projects, is sometimes grown as a shade tree in coffee plantations and sometimes also as a wayside tree[
Although Fraxinus griffithii is a pioneer species, it does not appear to be common or dominant anywhere in South-East Asia. Because it grows in unstable vegetation types in Malesia, it is likely to be at risk from fire or changing land use[
]. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2018)[
E. Asia - China, southern Japan, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines.
A pioneer species, growing on old lava flows, open rain forest or in Casuarina junghuhniana forest at elevations from near sea level to 1,700 metres, more commonly above 1,100 metres[
]. To 2,000 metres in China[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Ornamental, Wild
Fraxinus griffithii is a plant of warm temperate, subtropical and tropical monsoon climates in eastern Asia, where it can be found from near sea level to 2.000 metres[
]. It is not a very cold-hardy plant, able to tolerate short periods with temperatures down to around -8°c when fully dormant.
The leaves have been used as an opium substitute in Pancur (Besuki, East Java). The leaves were dried, crushed and mixed with tobacco to make cigars wrapped in maize bracts ('klobots'). Although smoking these leaves produced the same smell and taste as second grade opium, it did not have the same effect and it did not lessen opium addiction[
The bark is taken as a laxative[
The bark and leaves contain tannin, which causes the bitter taste, as well as a sweet juice that is composed mainly of mannitol and is also found in the European relative Fraxinus ornus L[
The bark also contains the glucosides ligstrocide, syringin and sinapaldehyde glucoside, but no fraxin or fraxin-like coumarins[
The presence of alkaloids has not been demonstrated[
The plant is sometimes grown as a shade tree in coffee plantations[
It is frequently found as a pioneer species on old lava flows (East Java, the Philippines) or in open rain forest or in Casuarina junghuhniana forest[
Fraxinus species in general are gross feeders with an extensive, fibrous root system, which makes transplanting easy, but means that other species will often not grow well if planted nearby, especially if they are shallow rooted[
The wood is not durable. It is used for carving[
The seed is best harvested green - as soon as it is fully developed but before it has fully dried on the tree - and can then be sown immediately in a cold frame[
]. It usually germinates in the spring[
]. Stored seed requires a period of cold stratification and is best sown as soon as possible in a cold frame[
]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions or a nursery bed in late spring or early summer of the following year.
If you have sufficient seed then it is possible to sow it directly into an outdoor seedbed, preferably in the autumn. Grow the seedlings on in the seedbed for 2 years before transplanting either to their permanent positions or to nursery beds.