Fraxinus apetala Lam.
Fraxinus steudelii Medik.
Fraxinus integrifólia Moench
Fraxinus simplicifolia Willd.
Fraxinus heterophylla Vahl
Fraxinus appendiculata Pers.
Fraxinus nana Pers.
Fraxinus crispa (Willd.) Bosc
Fraxinus strigata Bosc
Fraxinus atrovirens (Pers.) Desf.
Fraxinus aurea Willd.
Fraxinus polemonifolia Poir.
Fraxinus atra Dum.Cours.
Fraxinus pendula (Aiton) Hoffmanns.
Ornus striata (Dum.Cours.) Sweet
Ornus strigata (Bosc) A.Dietr.
Fraxinus fungosa Lodd.
Fraxinus boscii G.Don
Aplilia laciniata Raf.
Aplilia pendula (Aiton) Raf.
Fraxinus laciniata Raf.
Leptalix atrovirens (Pers.) Raf.
Leptalix nana (Pers.) Raf.
Fraxinus biloba Gren. & Godr.
Fraxinus microphylla Jacques
Fraxinus purpurascens K.Koch
Fraxinus sambucina coarctata K.Koch
Fraxinus viridis nobilis K.Koch
Fraxinus ararica Gand.
Fraxinus boitrayana Gand.
Fraxinus ochrochlora Gand.
Fraxinus oxyodon Gand.
Fraxinus stenobotrys Gand.
Fraxinus streptocarpa Gand.
Fraxinus subcordata Gand.
Fraxinus acutifólia Dippel
Fraxinus amaríssima Dippel
Fraxinus concavifolia Dippel
Fraxinus cucullata Baltet ex Dippel
Fraxinus exoniensis Dippel
Fraxinus globosa Dippel
Fraxinus glomerata Dippel
Fraxinus humilis Dippel
Fraxinus intermedia Dippel
Fraxinus linearis Dippel
Fraxinus lucida Dippel
Fraxinus pumila Dippel
Fraxinus scolopendrifolia Dippel
Fraxinus scolopendrium Dippel
Fraxinus spectabilis Dippel
Fraxinus stricta Beissner
Fraxinus ceretanica Sennen
Fraxinus baurieri Sennen & Gonzalo
Fraxinus josephi Sennen
Fraxinus longisamara Sennen & Gonzalo
Fraxinus dodei Sennen
Fraxinus grandifolia Sennen
Fraxinus grandidentata Sennen
Fraxinus longicarpa Sennen
Fraxinus ozanami Sennen
Fraxinus platyptera Sennen
Fraxinus serratifolia Sennen
Fraxinus vargasii Sennen & Gonzalo
Fraxinus veuilloti Sennen
Fraxinus brevidentata Sennen & Elías
Fraxinus burgalensis Sennen & Elías
Fraxinus eliae Sennen
Fraxinus retorta Sennen & Elías
Fraxinus bumelia Bedevian
Fraxinus coriariifolia Scheele
Fraxinus parvifolia Willd.
Fraxinus obliqua Tausch
Leptalix obliqua (Tausch) Raf.
Fraxinus willdenowiana Koehne
Fraxinus elbursensis Lingelsh.
Fraxinus angustifolia obliqua (Tausch) Fukarek
Common Name: Ash
Fraxinus excelsior is a deciduous tree that in favoured sites can grow from 30 - 40 metres tall[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of materials. A valuable timber, it is harvested on a commercial basis for its wood; the leaves are also harvested commercially and traded for use as herbal remedies[
].. The tree is much used in forestry and is also grown as an ornamtal.
Fraxinus excelsior has a very large distribution through Europe and western Asia. Ash dieback is an infectious disease that has caused severe dieback of this tree throughout much of its range. This is the most serious threat to the species, with recorded incidence in 24 countries and a high risk of spread to areas where it has not yet been observed. The tree is considered to be seriously threatened in Hungary where there is a high incidence of infection, and is threatened or Near Threatened in Norway, Sweden, Finland, Albania, Serbia and Montenegro, as well as in regions of Spain. Since Ash dieback disease is spread by wind, it is extremely difficult to reduce or prevent spread of the disease and the entire population is at risk of further disease outbreaks. The overall population decline has not been quantified and little data is available to precisely estimate future decline rates, but given the dramatic declines seen in some parts of the species range, a future decline of at least 20 - 30% across Europe is possible. The entire natural range including Russia and south-west Asia is currently threatened by ash dieback. This species is therefore classified as 'Near Threatened' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
Poisonous to ruminants[
], it has also caused dermatitis in some people[
Most of Europe, excluding Portugal, Finland and northern Russia, east through Turkey and the Caucasus to Iran
Forming woods on calcareous soils in the wetter parts of Britain, also in oakwoods, scrub, hedges etc[
]. It is also often found on acid soils[
|Conservation Status||Near Threatened
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Ornamental, Wild
Fraxinus excelsior is a very cold-hardy plant, able to tolerate temperatures down to around -30°c when fully dormant[
]. The young growth in spring however, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[
Prefers a deep loamy soil, even if it is on the heavy side[
]. Most members of this genus are gross feeders and require a rich soil[
]. Plants can succeed in very exposed positions, including maritime exposure, though they can become wind-shaped[
]. Thrives in alkaline soils[
] but not in shallow soils over chalk. Tolerates a pH as low as 4.5, but prefers a base-rich soil above 5.5[
]. Trees are surprisingly tolerant of seasonally water-logged soils[
]. Dislikes dryness at the roots, especially in late spring[
]. Very intolerant of shade, young plants fail to develop properly in such a position and often die.
A fast growing tree, it is sometimes cultivated for its valuable timber. Very tolerant of cutting, ash was also at one time frequently coppiced for its wood[
]. However, modern use of plastics have reduced its economic values.
There are many named varieties, selected for their ornamental value[
Trees have a light canopy and cast little shade[
A food plant for many insect species, there are 41 associated insect species[
Trees can be male, female, monoecious or hermaphrodite, they can also change sex from year to year[
]. Trees take 30 - 40 years to flower from seed[
]. The flowers are produced on one-year old wood[
This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[
Immature seed - usually pickled by steeping in salt and vinegar, and then used as a condiment for other foods[
The leaves are sometimes used as an adulterant for tea[
A manna is obtained from the tree[
]. No further details are given.
An edible oil similar to sunflower (Helianthus annuus) oil is obtained from the seed[
The leaves of both this species and Fraxinus angustifolia have a long history of herbal use that continues to the present day in many European countries. The leaves are antirheumatic, astringent, cathartic, diaphoretic, mildly diuretic, laxative and purgative[
]. They are used in the treatment of various conditions, and are also said to enhance urinary and digestive function[
]. The have been used as a laxative, making a mild substitute for senna pods[
The leaves should be gathered in early summer, well dried and stored in airtight containers[
The bark is antiperiodic, astringent and a bitter tonic[
]. The bark is used as a quinine substitute and acts
as a powerful anthelminthic[
]. Little used in modern herbalism, it is occasionally taken in the treatment of fevers[
The seeds, including their wings, have been used as a carminative[
]. They can be used in the same way as the bark, as a quinine substitute and a powerful anthelminthic. They can also be used in the treatment of kidney pains[
The seeds will store for 12 months if gathered when ripe[
Very tolerant of extreme exposure and relatively fast growing, though often wind-shaped in exposed positions, it can be grown as a shelterbelt tree[
]. However, it is late coming into leaf and also one of the first trees to lose its leaves in the autumn and this makes it less suitable in a shelter belt.
The tree can be used for woodland restoration and reforestation projects[
The plant is a gross feeder and can reduce the growth of plants growing nearby - especially cultivated crops[
A green dye is obtained from the leaves[
A black dye is obtained from the bark[
The bark is a source of tannin[
A tying material can be obtained from the wood[
] (does this mean the bark?).
The wood has a beautiful texture[
]. It is light in weight, hard, strong, flexible, and resilient. A very valuable wood that is tough and very durable, it is much used for tool handles, oars, furniture, posts etc[
An excellent fuel, burning well even when green[
]. There is some doubt over how well the green wood burns with several people claiming that it needs to be properly seasoned[
The seed is best harvested green - as soon as it is fully developed but before it has fully dried on the tree - and can then be sown immediately in a cold frame[
]. It usually germinates in the spring[
]. Stored seed requires a period of cold stratification and is best sown as soon as possible in a cold frame[
]. Approximately 5% of stored seed will germinate in the first year, the remainder germinating in the second year[
]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions or a nursery bed in late spring or early summer of the following year.
If you have sufficient seed then it is possible to sow it directly into an outdoor seedbed, preferably in the autumn. Grow the seedlings on in the seedbed for 2 years before transplanting either to their permanent positions or to nursery beds.
Cuttings of mature wood, placed in a sheltered outdoor bed in the winter, sometimes strike.