Eysenhardtia angustifolia Pennell
Eysenhardtia texana is most commonly a shrub growing up to 4 metres tall, but occasionally becomes more tree-like, growing up to 5 metres tall. The bole can be up to 25cm in diameter[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine and source of materials. It has fragrant blooms, delicate foliage, and a good branching growth form, making it of value as an ornamental[
Southern N. America - Texas, northern and central Mexico, south to Guanajuato.
Dry forest, Juniperus forest, thorny forest, low deciduous forest and grassland, usually in areas where there is available ground water such as gullies and dry sttream beds; at elevations from 200 - 2,050 metres[
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Eysenhardtia texana is native from the warm temperate zone of Texas south to the tropical zone of southeastern Mexico. It can be found in desert areas with as little as 50mm of rainfall in the year, but is also found in temperate pine forest where annual rainfall can reach 1,750mm.
Grows best in a sunny position, tolerating part shade[
]. The plant prefers calcareous soils, though it is found in the wild on a wide range of soils including saline, limestone, clayey, sandy-clays and rocky slopes[
]. Established plants are drought tolerant, though are likely to defoliate during the drought[
A fast-growing plant in moist conditions[
The vegetative parts of the plant give off a citrusy odour when crushed[
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria; these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[
The wood is diuretic. It is used in the treatment of kidney and bladder infections[
A methanol-dichloromethan extract of the aerial parts of the plant have shown antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans[
]. The active compounds were believed to be flavanones[
The flowers are a good source of nectar and are relished by bees[
A yellowish-brown dye is obtained from the wood. It is used to colour textiles[
The heartwood is reddish-brown, streaked with black, The texture is rather fine, the grain moderately straight, texture is waxy. The wood is hard, heavy and durable, it takes a fine polish and finishes smoothly. Of rather good quality, but seldom available and then usually only in small pieces. It is used for making small items, particularly handles of tools. The wood is also used to make fence posts[
Seed - sow in spring in trays in light shade in a greenhouse. No presoaking is necessary, though 12 hours in warm water might speed up the process. Germination is best at daytime temperatures of 20 - 30°c with 12 hours of light each day, though it will also germinate in the dark at temperatures from 15 - 40°c[
]. Be very careful with the seedlings, they are very susceptible to damping off. Pot up when seedlings have three sets of true leaves and plant out when around 15 - 25cm tall.
Seed can also be sown whilst still in the seedpods. The pods should be soaked for 72 hours prior to sowing, with the water being changed every 8 hours[
Cuttings of soft or semi-hard wood, 10 - 15cm long, taken in the summer and early autumn. Cuttings tend to root in 3 - 4 weeks[