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Useful Temperate Plants

Chaenomeles sinensis

(Dum.Cours.) Koehne

Rosaceae


We are using the name Chaenomeles sinensis for this species because it appears to be the most commonly accepted name, being used by the Flora of China[
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
] amonst many others. However, there are also quite a few authors, including the GRIN database, that are still using Pseudocydonia sinensis (Dum.Cours.) C.K.Schneid., as the correct name[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

+ Synonyms

Chaenomeles chinensis (Dum.Cours.) Koehne

Cydonia chinensis Lindl.

Cydonia sinensis (Dum.Cours.) Thouin

Cydonia vulgaris Pavol.

Malus communis chinensis (Dum.Cours.) Wenz.

Malus sinensis Dum.Cours.

Pseudocydonia sinensis (Dum.Cours.) C.K.Schneid.

Pyrus chinensis (Dum.Cours.) Poir.

Pyrus chinensis Spreng.

Pyrus sinensis (Dum.Cours.) Poir.

Common Name: Chinese Quince

No Image.

General Information

Chaenomeles sinensis is an unarmed, deciduous to semi-evergreen, shrub or a small tree; it can grow 5 - 12 metres tall[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
].
The plant is harvested from the wild for use as a food, medicine and source of materials - the fruits are sold in local markets. The plant is sometimes cultivated for its fruits and is also sometimes grown as an ornamental.

Known Hazards

Although no specific information has been seen, the seed is likely to contain cyanogenic glycosides. When injested, these compounds break down in the digestive tract to release cyanide. Used in small quantities in both traditional and conventional medicine, this exceedingly poisonous compound has been shown to stimulate respiration, improve digestion, and promote a sense of well-being[
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
]. It is also claimed by some to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer - though this claim has been largely refuted.
In larger concentrations, however, cyanide can cause gasping, weakness, excitement, pupil dilation, spasms, convulsions, coma and respiratory failure leading to death[
293
Title
Poisonous Plants of North Carolina
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/poison.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent concise but comprehensive guide to toxic plants that grow in N. Carolina. It lists even those plants that are of very low toxicity, including several well-known food plants such as carrots and potatoes.
].
The levels of toxin can be detected by the level of bitterness:- sweet almonds, for example, contain only very low levels of it and are safe to eat in quantity, whilst bitter almonds (which are used as a flavouring in foods such as marzipan) contain much higher levels and should only be eaten in very small quantities. Great caution should be employed if the taste is moderately to very bitter[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

Botanical References

11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.

Range

E. Asia - southern and eastern China.

Habitat

Found at elevations around 1,000 metres[
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitDeciduous Tree
Height6.00 m
PollinatorsInsects
Cultivation StatusWild

Cultivation Details

Chaenomeles sinensis is a fairly cold-hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least -15°c when fully dormant[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. However, it requires a hot summer in order to ripen its shoots and fruit fully and so generally does not grow so well in Maritime climates (where it will often suffer damage at -5°c), preferring Mediterranean or Continental climates[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
].
Requires a sunny position[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
,
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
], succeeding in any reasonably good soil that is well-drained but not dry[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
When growing in areas with cool summers, the plant can be grown and fruited successfully against a sunny wall[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. A plant growing in a sheltered, sunny position on the south side of tree cover at Kew was 3.5 metres tall in spring 1995 and looked healthy[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].
The plant is occasionally cultivated, especially in China[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
], for its edible fruit, there are some named varieties[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
].
Flowers are produced on year-old wood[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

Edible Uses

Fruit - raw or cooked. Very hard and acid raw but becoming fragrant when cooked[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. It is eaten as a sweetmeat, candied, preserved in syrup or made into preserves, juices and a liqueur[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
,
1198
Title
Bioactive Triterpenoids from the Twigs of Chaenomeles sinensis
Publication
J. Nat. Prod. 2017, 80, 1134−1140
Author
Chung Sub Kim; Lalita Subedi; Joonseok Oh; Sun Yeou Kim; San
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Year
2017
ISBN
DOI: 10.1021/acs.
Description
 
,
1200
Title
Morphological and Antioxidant Characteristics of Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) and Chinese Quince fruit (Pseudocydo
Publication
Potravinarstvo, vol. 8, 2014, no. 1, p. 333-340
Author
Anton Monka, Oľga Grygorieva, Peter Chlebo, Ján Brindza
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
doi:10.5219/415
Description
 
]. The juice can also be mixed with ginger and made into a beverage[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
]. The pale, citron-yellow, oval fruit can be 12 - 18cm long[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
105
Title
Tanaka's Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Tanaka. T. & Nakao S.
Publisher
Keigaku Publishing; Tokyo
Year
1976
ISBN
-
Description
The most comprehensive list of edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
,
179
Title
Famine Foods listed in the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao.
Publication
 
Author
Reid. B. E.
Publisher
Southern Materials Centre; Taipei
Year
1977
ISBN
-
Description
A translation of an ancient Chinese book on edible wild foods. Fascinating.
].
The fruit is rich in pectin and can be used with other fruits in order to thicken juices, improve fruit-set when making jam etc[
1200
Title
Morphological and Antioxidant Characteristics of Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) and Chinese Quince fruit (Pseudocydo
Publication
Potravinarstvo, vol. 8, 2014, no. 1, p. 333-340
Author
Anton Monka, Oľga Grygorieva, Peter Chlebo, Ján Brindza
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
doi:10.5219/415
Description
 
].

The seed is covered with a layer of dried mucilage which can quickly absorb water and become sticky. It has been shown that this mucilage can be used as an alternative to plastics to make an edible film that can be used to cover and protect food items. The seeds are generally available in quantity as a by-product of the fruit being used for food and medicine[
1199
Title
Edible Film Production from Chinese Quince Seed (Pseudocydonia sinensis) Mucilage
Publication
 
Author
Patthrare Inthamat; Yasunori Hamauzu; Wirongrong Tongdeesoon
Website
http:// https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305489115
Publisher
 
Year
2016
ISBN
 
Description
A conference paper, given at The International Conference on Food and Applied Bioscience in 2016
].

Medicinal

The fruit is antioxidant, antipruritic, antitussive, antiviral, diuretic and hypoglycaemic[
174
Title
Atlas of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Kariyone. T.
Publisher
Nihon Rinshosha; Osaka
Year
1973
ISBN
 
Description
A good Japanese herbal.
,
279
Title
Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
World Health Organisation, Manila
Year
1998
ISBN
92 9061 120 0
Description
An excellent book with terse details about the medicinal uses of the plants with references to scientific trials. All plants are described, illustrated and brief details of habitats given.
,
1198
Title
Bioactive Triterpenoids from the Twigs of Chaenomeles sinensis
Publication
J. Nat. Prod. 2017, 80, 1134−1140
Author
Chung Sub Kim; Lalita Subedi; Joonseok Oh; Sun Yeou Kim; San
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Year
2017
ISBN
DOI: 10.1021/acs.
Description
 
]. It is used in Korea to treat conditions such as asthma, the common cold, sore throats, diarrhoea, inflammatory diseases, mastitis and tuberculosis[
279
Title
Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
World Health Organisation, Manila
Year
1998
ISBN
92 9061 120 0
Description
An excellent book with terse details about the medicinal uses of the plants with references to scientific trials. All plants are described, illustrated and brief details of habitats given.
,
1198
Title
Bioactive Triterpenoids from the Twigs of Chaenomeles sinensis
Publication
J. Nat. Prod. 2017, 80, 1134−1140
Author
Chung Sub Kim; Lalita Subedi; Joonseok Oh; Sun Yeou Kim; San
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Year
2017
ISBN
DOI: 10.1021/acs.
Description
 
,
1200
Title
Morphological and Antioxidant Characteristics of Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) and Chinese Quince fruit (Pseudocydo
Publication
Potravinarstvo, vol. 8, 2014, no. 1, p. 333-340
Author
Anton Monka, Oľga Grygorieva, Peter Chlebo, Ján Brindza
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
doi:10.5219/415
Description
 
].
The fruit contains several medically active constituents including organic acids, triterpenoids, polyphenols plus the flavonoids rutin and quercetin[
279
Title
Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
World Health Organisation, Manila
Year
1998
ISBN
92 9061 120 0
Description
An excellent book with terse details about the medicinal uses of the plants with references to scientific trials. All plants are described, illustrated and brief details of habitats given.
].

The seed is coated with a mucilaginous substance. When soaked in water this swells up and can be used medicinally. Taken internally, it soothes the membranes of the digestive and respiratory tracts, helping to ease coughing, reduce inflammation, irritation etc. Applied externally, it can soothe a range of skin problems including mild burns, eczema[
1200
Title
Morphological and Antioxidant Characteristics of Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) and Chinese Quince fruit (Pseudocydo
Publication
Potravinarstvo, vol. 8, 2014, no. 1, p. 333-340
Author
Anton Monka, Oľga Grygorieva, Peter Chlebo, Ján Brindza
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
doi:10.5219/415
Description
 
].

Mugua is a Chinese traditional medicine derived from the fruits of Chaenomeles species. Whilst Chaenomeles speciosa is the species most commonly mentioned in the literature for its medicinal properties, in practice the fruits of all species in the genus are used interchangeably. Modern research has supported this and, indeed, shown that some of the other species actually have higher antioxidant value[
1196
Title
Protective effects of Chaenomeles thibetica extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced damage via the MAPK/Nrf2 pa
Publication
Food & Function · February 2016
Author
Bingxin Ma; Jing Wang; Jing Tong; Gao Zhou; Yuxin Chen; Jing
Website
http://www.rsc.org/foodfunction
Publisher
Royal Society of Chemistry
Year
2016
ISBN
DOI: 10.1039/c5fo
Description
 
].
The fruit is analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antispasmodic, astringent, digestive and hypoglycaemic[
147
Title
A Barefoot Doctors Manual.
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Running Press; Philadelphica.
Year
1977
ISBN
0-914294-92-X
Description
A very readable herbal from China, combining some modern methods with traditional chinese methods.
,
218
Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
,
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
]. A decoction is used internally in the treatment of a wide range of conditions, including nausea, joint pains, rheumatoid arthritis, hepatitis, asthma, common cold, cholera and associated cramps[
147
Title
A Barefoot Doctors Manual.
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Running Press; Philadelphica.
Year
1977
ISBN
0-914294-92-X
Description
A very readable herbal from China, combining some modern methods with traditional chinese methods.
,
218
Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
,
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
,
1197
Title
Polyphenols and triterpenes from Chaenomeles fruits: Chemical analysis and antioxidant activities assessment
Publication
Food Chemistry 141 (2013) 4260-4268
Author
Hui Du; Jie Wu; Hui Li; Pei-Xing Zhong; Yan-Jun Xu; Chong-Hu
Website
http://www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchem
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
DOI: 10.1016/j.fo
Description
 
].
The fruit contains polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenes and proanthocyanidins which have been shown to have a strong antioxidant activity[
1196
Title
Protective effects of Chaenomeles thibetica extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced damage via the MAPK/Nrf2 pa
Publication
Food & Function · February 2016
Author
Bingxin Ma; Jing Wang; Jing Tong; Gao Zhou; Yuxin Chen; Jing
Website
http://www.rsc.org/foodfunction
Publisher
Royal Society of Chemistry
Year
2016
ISBN
DOI: 10.1039/c5fo
Description
 
]. Antioxidant compounds such as these have been shown to protect against
cardiovascular diseases and also exhibit anti-tumour, antimicrobial, anti-adhesive, and anti-inflammatory effects[
1197
Title
Polyphenols and triterpenes from Chaenomeles fruits: Chemical analysis and antioxidant activities assessment
Publication
Food Chemistry 141 (2013) 4260-4268
Author
Hui Du; Jie Wu; Hui Li; Pei-Xing Zhong; Yan-Jun Xu; Chong-Hu
Website
http://www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchem
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
DOI: 10.1016/j.fo
Description
 
]

Other Uses

The fruits are very aromatic and are placed in a bowl to impart a delightful spicy scent to a room[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
].

The dark red wood is hard. It is used for picture frames[
174
Title
Atlas of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Kariyone. T.
Publisher
Nihon Rinshosha; Osaka
Year
1973
ISBN
 
Description
A good Japanese herbal.
].

Propagation

Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Stored seed requires 3 months cold stratification and should be sown as early in the year as possible[
113
Title
The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
Publication
 
Author
Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
Publisher
Athens Ga. Varsity Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0942375009
Description
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Layering.
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2024-06-23. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Chaenomeles+sinensis>

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