Unless a more recent treatment has been published, we are in general following the treatment in Flora of China[
]. However, there is a new revision of the Chinese Berberis species currently being prepared (2016) and it is likely that it will lead to several revisions once it is published[
Berberis atrovirens Wall. ex G.Don
Berberis atroviridis Steud.
Berberis macrophylla Lindl.
Berberis poluninii Ahrendt
Berberis wallichiana is an erect, spiny, evergreen shrub that is much-branched from the base; it usually grows up to 200cm tall, occasionally to 300cm[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and a medicine.
It is proposed that the plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2016)[
All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid berberine - this is most concentrated in the roots, stems and inner bark, and least concentrated in the fruits. In small quantities berberine has a range of effective medicinal applications but, in excess, can cause vomiting, lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate, lethargy, and other ill-effects.
The fruit of most, if not all, members of this genus are more or less edible and can be eaten in quantity since the levels of berberine in the fruit are very low.
E. Asia - Himalayas from Nepal to Myanmar, Vietnam
Open ground; at elevations from 2,000 - 3,400 metres in Nepal[
]. Edges of Rhododendron-oak forests[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
Species in this genus generally prefer a warm moist loamy soil and light shade but are by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils[
]. Grows well in heavy clay soils.
Plants can be pruned back quite severely, they resprout well from the base[
Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[
Some Berberis species (especially Berberis vulgaris) harbour the black stem-rust fungus (Puccinia graminis Persoon). This is a major disease of wheat and barley crops and can spread from infected barberries to the grain crop. The sale or transport of susceptible or untested species of Berberis is illegal in the United States and Canada[
]. We have no data on susceptibility for this species[
Fruit - raw[
]. The black, ellipsoid berries are 5 - 10mm long[
The roots contain the alkaloids berberine, oxyacanthine and umbellantine[
]. They are antibacterial and are used in Vietnam in the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, ophthalmia and dyspepsia[
The alkaloid berberine, which is universally present in the roots and stems of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery[
It should not be used in combination with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine[
Berberine has also shown antitumour activity[
The roots and stems of all Berberis species contain alkaloids and, when cut open, are a strong yellow colour. This has been utilized by various cultures to make a yellow dye for cloth etc[
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, when it should germinate in late winter or early spring[
]. Seed from over-ripe fruit will take longer to germinate[
], whilst stored seed may require cold stratification and should be sown in a cold frame as early in the year as possible[
]. The seedlings are subject to damping off, so should be kept well ventilated[
]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame. If growth is sufficient, it can be possible to plant them out into their permanent positions in the autumn, but generally it is best to leave them in the cold frame for the winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year. Germination averages out at about 90%[
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, mid summer in a frame.
Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, preferably with a heel, autumn in a frame[
Suckers, removed in late autumn/early winter and planted out in situ or potted up and planted out in late spring[