Abies krylovii Golub
Abies pichta J.Forbes
Abies semenovii B.Fedtsch.
Picea pichta (J.Forbes) Loudon
Picea sibirica Gordon
Pinus picea Pall.
Pinus pichta (J.Forbes) Fisch. ex Endl.
Pinus sibirica (Ledeb.) Turcz.
Common Name: Siberian Fir
Abies sibirica forest in the Western Sayan headwaters. Bolshoy Kebezh, Ergaki National Park, Krasnoyarsk Territory
Photograph by: ??????? ????????
Abies sibirica is an evergreen tree with a narrow, conical crown; it can grow 30 - 35 metres tall. The straight, cylindrical bole can be up to 100cm in diameter[
An economically important timber species, extensively harvested from vast natural stands for use in construction, pulp etc. The plant also has local medicinal uses and is a source of essential oils used in cosmetic products. The tree is cultivated as a timber crop in northern Europe[
This species is very widespread and there are no major threats. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
Northern Europe - Russia, through Siberia to northern China and the Russian Far East.
Forms extensive forests on the northern plains and on cool wet mountainsides, growing on soils that are usually of alluvial origin, podzolic, and in the mountains also calcareous, well drained and free of permafrost; at elevations to 2,000 metres[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
Abies sibirica is found at high latitudes in northern Europe and Asia, but staying well south of the Artic circle - it is found at elevations from the plains at near sea level to mountain slopes at 2,000 metres. The climate is cold continental, but not extreme in most parts of the range of the species[
]. The tree often does not grow well in cultivation, especially if in milder areas than its habitat. Although very cold tolerant when dormant (tolerating -50°c), it is excited into growth early in the season and this young growth in spring can be damaed by late frosts[
Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil[
]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[
]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[
]. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5[
]. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope[
Cultivated for timber in N. Europe[
Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[
Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[
]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[
Most if not all trees grown under this name in Britain are in fact Abies sachalinensis[
The essential oil obtained from the leaves is antirheumatic, expectorant and stimulant[
This species yields Siberian Pine Oil which may be used as a rubefacient[
An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used medicinally[
Various parts of the plant yield essential oils and other compounds that are used as ingredients in commercial cosmetic preparations as masking and perfuming agents, tonics[
The wood is light and soft. It has no heartwood or resin ducts and is not very durable. It is used for light-frame construction, furniture and pulp[
Seed - sow late winter in a greenhouse or outdoors in early spring[
]. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[
]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[
]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored[
]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[
] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[