Picea holophylla (Maxim.) Gordon
Pinus holophylla (Maxim.) Parl.
Common Name: Manchurian Fir
Young cultivated trees in PAN Botanical Garden in Warsaw
Photograph by: Crusier
Abies holophylla is an evergreen tree with a narrow, conical crown; it can grow up to 45 metres tall. The straight, cylindrical bole can be 60cm in diameter[
A valuable timber tree in its native range, being exploited mainly in managed forests.
Unrestricted logging, especially but not only in the Russian Far East has led to a decline of this species over the last three generations, which is often exacerbated when the forests are then subjected to repeated burning after logging. However, the extent of the decline is estimated to be less than 30% - which does not quite qualify as Threatened. A continued decline could result in a change of category at the next assessment. The plant is currently classified as 'Near Threatened' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
E. Asia - Manchuria, Russian Far East, Korea.
Forests in low to moderately high mountains, sometimes forming pure stands at higher elevations or the more northerly limits of its range; owing on lithosols of granitic origin; at elevations up to 1,500 metres in the south of its range[
|Conservation Status||Near Threatened
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Semi-cultivated, Wild
Abies holophylla is a plant of the cool temperate zone where it can be found at elevations up to 1,500 metres. T is found in areas where the climate is cold, with wet summers and arid winters with long periods of snow[
]. Dormant trees are very cold hardy, but young growth is susceptible to damage by frost[
Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil[
]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[
]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[
]. Prefers slightly acid conditions, down to a pH of about 5[
]. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope[
Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[
Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[
]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[
An extract of the leaves, stems and wood is used as an ingredient in commercial cosmetic preparations as a skin conditioner[
Most of the wood today is used for plywood and veneer as it is evenly grained, light and easily worked. Minor uses are for soundboards in musical instruments, boxes and sometimes for joinery[
Seed - sow late winter in a greenhouse or outdoors in early spring[
]. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[
]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[
]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored[
]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[
] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[