Verbena affinis M.Martens & Galeotti
Verbena bonariensis litoralis (Kunth) Hook. ex Müll.Berol.
Verbena brasiliensis subglabrata Moldenke
Verbena caracasana Kunth
Verbena carolina glabra Moldenke
Verbena gentryi Moldenke
Verbena glabrata tenuispicata Moldenke
Verbena integrifolia Sessé & Moc.
Verbena lanceolata Willd. ex Spreng.
Verbena longifolia M.Martens & Galeotti
Verbena minutiflora peruviana Moldenke
Verbena nudiflora Nutt. ex Turcz.
Verbena paucifolia Turcz.
Verbena sedula Moldenke
Close-up of the flowering stem
Photograph by: John Tann
Verbena litoralis is an erect or ascending annual to short-lived perennial plant with few to many-branched stems that grow 30 - 200cm tall, sometimes becoming woody towards the base[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine. It is grown for medicinal use in home gardens in Ecuador[
The plant has become an invasive weed in many tropical and subtropical areas. It displaces forages in pastures and native species in disturbed forest sites[
]. Although the species has spread to other countries from its native environment, and is sometimes regarded as an invasive threat (in Australia and some states of the USA), it often seems to be restricted to disturbed habitats like roadsides, stream banks, tracks and waste places. Information on its effects on other plant species is not well reported, nor is there any evidence to suggest it has any serious impacts on specific environments or ecosystems[
S. America - Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, southern Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela; C. America - Panama to Mexico.
Wet or dry thickets, meadows, rocky slopes, often a weed in cultivated ground, sometimes in pine-oak forest; at elevations from 85 - 3,000 metres[
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Wild
Verbena litoralis is a plant of dry climates, growing in areas where the mean annual rainfall can be within the range 100 - 800mm, with a dry season of up to 10 months[
]. It is intolerant of snow, but in dry climates can tolerate occasional short-lived freezing spells with temperatures falling to around -5°c[
Prefers a sunny position and a dry, arid area[
]. Plants can withstand long periods of drought[
The plant has been used as a remedy for various fevers, as well as influenza and small-pox[
]. The plant is crushed and boiled in water and then the decoction is taken orally. Said to have a bitter taste and a purgative effect[
Seed - sow early spring in a greenhouse or cold frame[
]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.