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Useful Temperate Plants

Vaccinium pallidum

Aiton

Ericaceae

+ Synonyms

Cyanococcus liparis Small

Cyanococcus pallidus (Aiton) Small

Cyanococcus subcordatus Small

Cyanococcus tallapusae Coville ex Small

Cyanococcus vacillans (Kalm ex Torr.) Rydb.

Vaccinium altomontanum Ashe

Vaccinium corymbosum pallidum (Aiton) A.Gray

Vaccinium margarettae Ashe

Vaccinium tallapusae (Coville ex Small) Uphof

Vaccinium vacillans Kalm ex Torr.

Vaccinium viride Ashe

Common Name: Dryland Blueberry

No Image.

General Information

Vaccinium pallidum is an erect, deciduous shrub usually growing 30 - 120cm tall from a rhizomatous rootstock and often forming small to extensive, open colonies[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
,
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
,
1131
Title
The Genus Vaccinium in North America
Publication
 
Author
Vander Kloet S.P.
Publisher
Canadian Government Publishing Centre; Ottawa
Year
1988
ISBN
0-660-13037-8
Description
A detailed study of the genus in N. America.
]. On some poor sites the plant may be less than 10cm tall[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and a medicine. The fruits are harvested on a commercial basis in southeastern N. America, though in many areas, quantities of berries are difficult to collect because the fruit ripens over a relatively long period of time[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
,
1131
Title
The Genus Vaccinium in North America
Publication
 
Author
Vander Kloet S.P.
Publisher
Canadian Government Publishing Centre; Ottawa
Year
1988
ISBN
0-660-13037-8
Description
A detailed study of the genus in N. America.
]. An attractive plant, it is sometimes grown in gardens as an ornamental, fruit-producing plant, where it can also be used as a ground cover[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
43
Title
Gray's Manual of Botany.Eighth Edition
Publication
 
Author
Fernald. M. L.
Publisher
American Book Co.; New York
Year
1950
ISBN
0442222505
Description
A bit dated but a good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Range

Eastern N. America - southern Ontario to Maine, south to Oklahoma, Mississippi and Georgia

Habitat

Woods, thickets and clearings in dryish situations[
43
Title
Gray's Manual of Botany.Eighth Edition
Publication
 
Author
Fernald. M. L.
Publisher
American Book Co.; New York
Year
1950
ISBN
0442222505
Description
A bit dated but a good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
]. Dry, open oak or oak- hickory woods, open pine woods, ledges, abandoned farmland or cut-over deciduous forests; at elevations from sea level to 1,600 metres[
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitDeciduous Shrub
Height1.20 m
PollinatorsInsects
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Vaccinium pallidum is quite cold tolerant, surviving winters with temperatures falling to -10°c or more. It grows in areas where the mean annual rainfall is within the range 1,000 - 1,200mm[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].
Requires a moist but freely-draining lime free soil, preferring one that is rich in peat or a light loamy soil with added leaf-mould[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Plants are said to favour dryish situations in the wild[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
]. Although favouring sandy soils in the wild, the plant is also found on heavy clays[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
]. Prefers a very acid soil with a pH in the range of 4.5 to 6, plants soon become chlorotic when lime is present. Succeeds in full sun or light shade though it fruits better in a sunny position[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Requires shelter from strong winds[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Established plants are somewhat drought tolerant[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].
Plants often form extensive colonies in the wild[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
The plant is resistant to fire - even if top growth is killed back, it usually resprouts freely from the base[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
]. It is found in greater abundance in areas where fires are more frequent, perhaps around every 10 years on average[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].
Dislikes root disturbance, plants are best grown in pots until being planted out in their permanent positions[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
This species hybridizes in the wild with many other Vaccinium species including Vaccinium darrowii, Vaccinium boreale, Vaccinium tenellum, Vaccinium fuscatum, Vaccinium stamineum, Vaccinium elliottii, Vaccinium myrtilloides, Vaccinium atrococcum, Vaccinium angustifolium, Vaccinium caesariense, and Vaccinium virgatum[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

Edible Uses

Fruit - raw or cooked. Very sweet, it is considered to be one of the best tasting blueberries[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
]. The blue-black berries are around 4 - 8mm in diameter[
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
].

Medicinal

The fruit is a rich source of micro-nutrients and, in addition to being edible, is said to have many health benefits. It has a gentle laxative action and, if taken regularly, is said to improve the circulation, especially of the small blood vessels, which can help prevent eye problems such as cataracts and glaucoma. Other conditions that can benefit include ulcers, urinary tract infections, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, fever, varicose veins and haemorrhoids[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].

The dried fruit and leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].

The leaves are astringent, antiinflammatory, blood purifier. An infusion is used in the treatment of sore throats and other inflammations of the mouth or mucous membranes of the throat, as well as in the treatment of infant's colic[
222
Title
A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America.
Publication
 
Author
Foster. S. & Duke. J. A.
Publisher
Houghton Mifflin Co.
Year
1990
ISBN
0395467225
Description
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
,
257
Title
Native American Ethnobotany
Publication
 
Author
Moerman. D.
Publisher
Timber Press. Oregon.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-88192-453-9
Description
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.
,
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].

Traditionally, the smoke from burning dried blueberry flowers is inhaled as a treatment of insanity[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].


The fruit is high in fiber and vitamin C. It also contains ellagitannins, flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol, catechins, and phenolic acids. Other constituents include anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins, beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, glutathione, and alpha-tocopherol[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].
The anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins have antioxidant activity and promote blood circulation, especially of the small blood vessels. However, there is some evidence that when eaten as part of the whole fruit, they may not be well absorbed[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].
Trials suggest that the antioxidant effects of blueberry extracts might have anticancer activity and potentially reduce normal oxidative cellular damage that occurs with aging[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].
Ethyl acetate extracts of blueberry fruit inhibit ornithine decarboxylase, which is a key enzyme in tumor progression[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].
Blueberry, like its relative, the cranberry, also appears to prevent bacterial adhesion to the bladder and bacterial colonization[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
]

Agroforestry Uses:

The plant forms a good ground cover, and is known to retard soil erosion on steep slopes[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].

Other Uses

The juice contains a high level of manganese and can be used as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].

The plant has shown promise for use in breeding hardy, early-ripening, fruit-producing cultivars. It has shown
particular promise for developing commercial blueberries adapted to upland mineral soils[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].

The wood is soft and white - it has no known commercial value[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].

Propagation

Seed - sow late winter in a greenhouse in a lime-free potting mix and only just cover the seed[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. Stored seed might require a period of up to 3 months cold stratification[
113
Title
The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
Publication
 
Author
Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
Publisher
Athens Ga. Varsity Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0942375009
Description
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
]. Another report says that it is best to sow the seed in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Once they are about 5cm tall, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 - 8cm with a heel, August in a frame[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. Slow and difficult.
Layering in late summer or early autumn[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. Another report says that spring is the best time to layer[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Takes 18 months[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Division of suckers in spring or early autumn[
113
Title
The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
Publication
 
Author
Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
Publisher
Athens Ga. Varsity Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0942375009
Description
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
].

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