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Useful Temperate Plants

Vaccinium corymbosum

L.

Ericaceae


The Flora of N. America[
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
] is treating the species Vaccinium corymbosum in a much looser sense than many other treatments. Many related taxa, including this one, which are treated as distinct elsewhere, are treated as variants and reduced to synonymy of Vaccinium corymbosum. Until we see wider acceptance of this treatment we are maintaining this species as distinct here.
To quote from the Flora of N. America:- ‘Every morphological variant of the high-bush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) has been named formally at one time or another. At least 25 such taxa have been raised to specific rank; none is distinct throughout its putative range nor has the properties normally associated with biological species, including Vaccinium atrococcum and V. elliottii. See S. P. Vander Kloet (1980) for a complete list of synonyms. Feral populations readily become established wherever cultivars have been planted, e.g., Britain, British Columbia, Japan, Missouri, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Washington, and Wisconsin[
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
]’

+ Synonyms

Cyanococcus atrococcus (A.Gray) Small

Cyanococcus corymbosus (L.) Rydb.

Cyanococcus cuthbertii Small

Cyanococcus holophyllus Small

Cyanococcus margarettae (Ashe) Small

Cyanococcus simulatus (Small) Small

Vaccinium albiflorum Hook.

Common Name: High-Bush Blueberry

No Image.

General Information

Vaccinium corymbosum is an erect, deciduous shrub forming a crown of growth 2 - 3 metres tall, occasionally to 4 metres. The plant sometimes produces suckers, especially if disturbed or burnt, and can form dense colonies[
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
,
277
Title
Plants Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://plants.usda.gov/java/factSheet
Publisher
United States Department of Agriculture
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online database with an excellent collection of fact sheets about native N. American plants.
,
1131
Title
The Genus Vaccinium in North America
Publication
 
Author
Vander Kloet S.P.
Publisher
Canadian Government Publishing Centre; Ottawa
Year
1988
ISBN
0-660-13037-8
Description
A detailed study of the genus in N. America.
].
This species is the major blueberry of commerce. It is extensively cultivated in N. America and many cultivars have been developed for fruit production. The plant also has a range of medicinal benefits, and is used in landscaping, especially where it might be planted in wet places and to attract wildlife[
277
Title
Plants Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://plants.usda.gov/java/factSheet
Publisher
United States Department of Agriculture
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online database with an excellent collection of fact sheets about native N. American plants.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
43
Title
Gray's Manual of Botany.Eighth Edition
Publication
 
Author
Fernald. M. L.
Publisher
American Book Co.; New York
Year
1950
ISBN
0442222505
Description
A bit dated but a good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Range

Eastern N. America - Ontario to Nova Scotia, south to Texas and Florida..

Habitat

Open swamps, bogs, sandy margins of lakes, ponds, and streams, flatwoods, gray-birch scrub, pine barrens, mires, bay heads, upland ericaceous meadows, upland woods, ravines, mountain summits; at elevations from sea level to 1,600 metres[
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *  *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitDeciduous Shrub
Height2.00 m
PollinatorsBees
Self-fertileYes
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Vaccinium corymbosum is hardy to about -25°c[
184
Title
Shrubs.
Publication
 
Author
Phillips. R. & Rix. M.
Publisher
Pan Books
Year
1989
ISBN
0-330-30258-2
Description
Excellent photographs and a terse description of 1,900 species and cultivars.
].
Requires a moist but freely-draining lime free soil, preferring one that is rich in peat or a light loamy soil with added leaf-mould[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Prefers a very acid soil with a pH in the range of 4.5 to 6, plants soon become chlorotic when lime is present. Succeeds in full sun or light shade though it fruits better in a sunny position[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Requires shelter from strong winds[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Often cultivated for its edible fruit in America[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
], it is the most common and successful blueberry to be cultivated in Britain[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. There are many named varieties[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
]. A very variable plant, it usually blossoms freely in Britain[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
].
Plants are partially self-sterile, a single plant does produce fruit but more than one variety is required in order to obtain heavier yields of fruit[
182
Title
Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7195-5043-2
Description
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
,
277
Title
Plants Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://plants.usda.gov/java/factSheet
Publisher
United States Department of Agriculture
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online database with an excellent collection of fact sheets about native N. American plants.
].
Dislikes root disturbance, plants are best grown in pots until being planted out in their permanent positions[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Does not grow well with blackberries or raspberries[
201
Title
A - Z of Companion Planting.
Publication
 
Author
Allardice.P.
Publisher
Cassell Publishers Ltd.
Year
1993
ISBN
0-304-34324-2
Description
A well produced and very readable book.
].
Closely related to Vaccinium atrococcum and Vaccinium virgatum[
182
Title
Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7195-5043-2
Description
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
].
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

Edible Uses

Fruit - raw or cooked[
2
Title
Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Hedrick. U. P.
Publisher
Dover Publications
Year
1972
ISBN
0-486-20459-6
Description
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
,
3
Title
Growing Unusual Fruit.
Publication
 
Author
Simmons. A. E.
Publisher
David & Charles; Newton Abbot.
Year
1972
ISBN
0-7153-5531-7
Description
A very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and use them.
,
43
Title
Gray's Manual of Botany.Eighth Edition
Publication
 
Author
Fernald. M. L.
Publisher
American Book Co.; New York
Year
1950
ISBN
0442222505
Description
A bit dated but a good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
,
62
Title
A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Elias. T. and Dykeman. P.
Publisher
Van Nostrand Reinhold
Year
1982
ISBN
0442222009
Description
Very readable.
,
161
Title
Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237.
Publication
 
Author
Yanovsky. E.
Publisher
U.S. Depf of Agriculture.
Year
 
ISBN
-
Description
A comprehensive but very terse guide. Not for the casual reader.
]. It is usually sweet and juicy, though the flavour can be variable[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. As well as being eaten raw, it is prepared in a wide range of ways - it can be smoke-dried, sun-dried, boiled, and baked in pies, pastries, cereals, jellies etc[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
,
277
Title
Plants Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://plants.usda.gov/java/factSheet
Publisher
United States Department of Agriculture
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online database with an excellent collection of fact sheets about native N. American plants.
]. The fruit can also be dried and used like raisins[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
]. The fruit is rich in vitamin C[
201
Title
A - Z of Companion Planting.
Publication
 
Author
Allardice.P.
Publisher
Cassell Publishers Ltd.
Year
1993
ISBN
0-304-34324-2
Description
A well produced and very readable book.
], and has one of the highest concentrations of iron of the temperate fruits[
277
Title
Plants Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://plants.usda.gov/java/factSheet
Publisher
United States Department of Agriculture
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online database with an excellent collection of fact sheets about native N. American plants.
]. The fruit is about 15mm in diameter[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

A tea is made from the leaves and dried fruit[
101
Title
Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada.
Publication
 
Author
Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A.
Publisher
National Museum of Natural Sciences
Year
1978
ISBN
-
Description
A very readable guide to some wild foods of Canada.
].

Medicinal

The fruit is a rich source of micro-nutrients and, in addition to being edible, is said to have many health benefits. It has a gentle laxative action and, if taken regularly, is said to improve the circulation, especially of the small blood vessels, which can help prevent eye problems such as cataracts and glaucoma. Other conditions that can benefit include ulcers, urinary tract infections, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, fever, varicose veins and haemorrhoids[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].

The dried fruit and leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].

The leaves are astringent, antiinflammatory, blood purifier. An infusion is used in the treatment of sore throats and other inflammations of the mouth or mucous membranes of the throat, as well as in the treatment of infant's colic[
222
Title
A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America.
Publication
 
Author
Foster. S. & Duke. J. A.
Publisher
Houghton Mifflin Co.
Year
1990
ISBN
0395467225
Description
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
,
257
Title
Native American Ethnobotany
Publication
 
Author
Moerman. D.
Publisher
Timber Press. Oregon.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-88192-453-9
Description
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.
,
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].

Traditionally, the smoke from burning dried blueberry flowers is inhaled as a treatment of insanity[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].


The fruit is high in fiber and vitamin C. It also contains ellagitannins, flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol, catechins, and phenolic acids. Other constituents include anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins, beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, glutathione, and alpha-tocopherol[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].
The anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins have antioxidant activity and promote blood circulation, especially of the small blood vessels. However, there is some evidence that when eaten as part of the whole fruit, they may not be well absorbed[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].
Trials suggest that the antioxidant effects of blueberry extracts might have anticancer activity and potentially reduce normal oxidative cellular damage that occurs with aging[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].
Ethyl acetate extracts of blueberry fruit inhibit ornithine decarboxylase, which is a key enzyme in tumor progression[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].
Blueberry, like its relative, the cranberry, also appears to prevent bacterial adhesion to the bladder and bacterial colonization[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
]

Other Uses

The juice contains a high level of manganese and can be used as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].

Propagation

Seed - sow late winter in a greenhouse in a lime-free potting mix and only just cover the seed[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. Stored seed might require a period of up to 3 months cold stratification[
113
Title
The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
Publication
 
Author
Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
Publisher
Athens Ga. Varsity Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0942375009
Description
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
]. Another report says that it is best to sow the seed in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Seeds from plants in the southern portion of its range have thick seed coats and require a period of cold stratification before germination. Those from more northerly regions produce thinner seed coats and germinate in the autumn after dispersal[
277
Title
Plants Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://plants.usda.gov/java/factSheet
Publisher
United States Department of Agriculture
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online database with an excellent collection of fact sheets about native N. American plants.
].
Once they are about 5cm tall, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Cuttings of greenwood, May/early summer in a shady position in a compost that contains some peat[
113
Title
The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
Publication
 
Author
Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
Publisher
Athens Ga. Varsity Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0942375009
Description
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
].
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 - 8cm with a heel, August in a frame[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. Slow and difficult.
Cuttings of mature wood, harvested in late autumn and stored in a fridge then planted in a frame in early spring.
Layering in late summer or early autumn[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. Another report says that spring is the best time to layer[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Takes 18 months[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Division of suckers in spring or early autumn[
113
Title
The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
Publication
 
Author
Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
Publisher
Athens Ga. Varsity Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0942375009
Description
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
].
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2018-07-17. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Vaccinium+corymbosum>

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