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Useful Temperate Plants

Vaccinium angustifolium

Aiton

Ericaceae

+ Synonyms

Cyanococcus angustifolius (Aiton) Rydb.

Vaccinium brittonii Porter ex E.P.Bicknell

Vaccinium canadense chiococcum W.Deane

Vaccinium lamarckii Camp

Vaccinium nigrum (Alph.Wood) Britton

Vaccinium pensylvanicum leucocarpum W.Deane

Vaccinium pensylvanicum nigrum Alph.Wood

Common Name: Low Sweet Blueberry

No Image.

General Information

Vaccinium angustifolium is a deciduous shrub growing from a vigorous, rhizomatous rootstock. It forms dense, extensive colonies of shoots around 10 - 30cm tall[
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
,
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].
This species is the most important commercial blueberry in the northeastern United States and Canada. It is grown commercially for its fruit in Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Maine, whilst a major portion of the crop is gathered from managed wild stands[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
]. The plant also has a range of medicinal uses, can be used in soil reclamation projects and is grown as an ornamental in gardens, where it can be used as a ground cover.

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
43
Title
Gray's Manual of Botany.Eighth Edition
Publication
 
Author
Fernald. M. L.
Publisher
American Book Co.; New York
Year
1950
ISBN
0442222505
Description
A bit dated but a good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Range

North-eastern N. America - Manitoba to Newfoundland, south to Iowa, Tennessee and N. Carolina

Habitat

Dry open barrens, peats and rocks[
43
Title
Gray's Manual of Botany.Eighth Edition
Publication
 
Author
Fernald. M. L.
Publisher
American Book Co.; New York
Year
1950
ISBN
0442222505
Description
A bit dated but a good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
]. Headlands, high moors, dry, sandy areas, peaty barrens, rocky outcroppings, pine barrens, oak parklands, regeneration forests, abandoned pastures and bogs; at elevations up to 1,900 metres[
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitDeciduous Shrub
Height0.20 m
PollinatorsInsects, Self
Self-fertileYes
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental, Semi-cultivated, Wild

Cultivation Details

Vaccinium angustifolium is a very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -40°c[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. It is tolerant of a wide range of temperatures, succeeding in areas having a dry, sunny, continental climatic regime receiving a mean average rainfall of 500mm, as well as in areas having cloudy maritime climates receiving 1,560 - 1,950mm of rain[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].
Requires a moist but freely-draining lime free soil, preferring one that is rich in peat or a light loamy soil with added leaf-mould[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Prefers a very acid soil with a pH in the range of 4.5 to 6, plants soon become chlorotic when lime is present. Plants can tolerate a pH as low as 3.5[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
]. The average pH for 60 soils in which his species was found was 4.4, with a range of 2.8-6.6[
1131
Title
The Genus Vaccinium in North America
Publication
 
Author
Vander Kloet S.P.
Publisher
Canadian Government Publishing Centre; Ottawa
Year
1988
ISBN
0-660-13037-8
Description
A detailed study of the genus in N. America.
]. .Succeeds in full sun or light shade though it fruits better in a sunny position[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Requires shelter from strong winds[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Dislikes root disturbance, plants are best grown in pots until being planted out in their permanent positions[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
In the autumn, after the fruit harvest, it was common for native N. American people to burn the areas where the plants grew in order to create a favourable habitat. This practice is followed, though not always every year, in modern commercially managed wild stands. The fire stimulates new growth, it also creates sunny openings in the forest and edges that foster the rapid spread of nutritious herbs and shrubs that favour the huckleberries[
277
Title
Plants Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://plants.usda.gov/java/factSheet
Publisher
United States Department of Agriculture
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online database with an excellent collection of fact sheets about native N. American plants.
,
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
]. Fruit
production typically declines as clones age - production often peaks 10 - 20 years after fire, just prior to canopy closure[1050.
The plant is also cultivated for its edible fruits, there are some named varieties[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
,
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
].
The plant succeeds in cold northerly locations such as Maine in N. America[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
] and in central Sweden. However, it is said to have little or no value as a fruit crop in Britain[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
].
The typical species is not as well known as its subspecies Vaccinium angustifolium laevifolium. House[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
].
Plants commence flowering and fruiting when about 4 years old from seed[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].
The plant is somewhat self-fertile, though better crops are obtained through cross-pollination by insects, especially bees[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].
Plants are very tolerant of environmental pollution, tolerating acid rain and apparently resistant to emissions produced by zinc smelters[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].
Very tolerant of fire - the top growth may be killed but the plant soon resprouts from its roots[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

Edible Uses

Fruit - raw, cooked or used in preserves etc[
2
Title
Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Hedrick. U. P.
Publisher
Dover Publications
Year
1972
ISBN
0-486-20459-6
Description
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
,
161
Title
Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237.
Publication
 
Author
Yanovsky. E.
Publisher
U.S. Depf of Agriculture.
Year
 
ISBN
-
Description
A comprehensive but very terse guide. Not for the casual reader.
,
177
Title
Plants for Human Consumption.
Publication
 
Author
Kunkel. G.
Publisher
Koeltz Scientific Books
Year
1984
ISBN
3874292169
Description
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
,
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
]. A very sweet pleasant flavour with a slight taste of honey[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
43
Title
Gray's Manual of Botany.Eighth Edition
Publication
 
Author
Fernald. M. L.
Publisher
American Book Co.; New York
Year
1950
ISBN
0442222505
Description
A bit dated but a good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
,
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
]. Largely grown for the canning industry, it is considered to be the best of the lowbush type blueberries[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
]. The fruit can be dried and used like raisins[
62
Title
A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Elias. T. and Dykeman. P.
Publisher
Van Nostrand Reinhold
Year
1982
ISBN
0442222009
Description
Very readable.
]. The fruit is about 12mm in diameter[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. This is the earliest commercially grown blueberry to ripen[
235
Title
An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada
Publication
 
Author
Britton. N. L. Brown. A.
Publisher
Dover Publications. New York.
Year
1970
ISBN
0-486-22642-5
Description
Reprint of a 1913 Flora, but still a very useful book.
].

A tea is made from the leaves and dried fruits[
101
Title
Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada.
Publication
 
Author
Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A.
Publisher
National Museum of Natural Sciences
Year
1978
ISBN
-
Description
A very readable guide to some wild foods of Canada.
].

Medicinal

The fruit is a rich source of micro-nutrients and, in addition to being edible, is said to have many health benefits. It has a gentle laxative action and, if taken regularly, is said to improve the circulation, especially of the small blood vessels, which can help prevent eye problems such as cataracts and glaucoma. Other conditions that can benefit include ulcers, urinary tract infections, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, fever, varicose veins and haemorrhoids[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].

The dried fruit and leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].

The leaves are astringent, antiinflammatory, blood purifier. An infusion is used in the treatment of sore throats and other inflammations of the mouth or mucous membranes of the throat, as well as in the treatment of infant's colic[
222
Title
A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America.
Publication
 
Author
Foster. S. & Duke. J. A.
Publisher
Houghton Mifflin Co.
Year
1990
ISBN
0395467225
Description
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
,
257
Title
Native American Ethnobotany
Publication
 
Author
Moerman. D.
Publisher
Timber Press. Oregon.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-88192-453-9
Description
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.
,
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].

An infusion of the roots has been used to induce labour[
257
Title
Native American Ethnobotany
Publication
 
Author
Moerman. D.
Publisher
Timber Press. Oregon.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-88192-453-9
Description
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.
].

Traditionally, the smoke from burning dried blueberry flowers is inhaled as a treatment of insanity[
257
Title
Native American Ethnobotany
Publication
 
Author
Moerman. D.
Publisher
Timber Press. Oregon.
Year
1998
ISBN
0-88192-453-9
Description
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.
,
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].

The fruit is high in fiber and vitamin C. It also contains ellagitannins, flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol, catechins, and phenolic acids. Other constituents include anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins, beta-carotene, chlorogenic acid, glutathione, and alpha-tocopherol[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].
The anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins have antioxidant activity and promote blood circulation, especially of the small blood vessels. However, there is some evidence that when eaten as part of the whole fruit, they may not be well absorbed[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].
Trials suggest that the antioxidant effects of blueberry extracts might have anticancer activity and potentially reduce normal oxidative cellular damage that occurs with aging[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].
Ethyl acetate extracts of blueberry fruit inhibit ornithine decarboxylase, which is a key enzyme in tumor progression[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].
Blueberry, like its relative, the cranberry, also appears to prevent bacterial adhesion to the bladder and bacterial colonization[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
]

Agroforestry Uses:

The plant may have potential use for rehabilitating certain types of disturbed sites. It is tolerant of metals and grows in stunted form on industrially damaged sites near Sudbury, Ontario. Plants have recolonized strip-mined areas in West Virginia and reclaimed mined peatlands of the Northeast USA. Rhizomes can sometimes aid in preventing soil erosion on steep slopes[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].
The plant can form extensive, dense colonies, and so can be used as a fruiting ground cover[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].
Low sweet blueberry is an important recolonizer in its native habitat. Its sprouts are prominent on disturbed sites such as clearcuts, burns, fields, and pastures. Cover is typically higher on fields derived from hayfields than those derived from woodlots]. The plant is an important seral species during the transition from field to forest in various eastern old-field communities[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].

Other Uses

The plant has potential for use in breeding northern fruit-producing stock, and is well suited to small farms, since 2 - 4 hectares is sufficient to produce a significant quantity of fruit[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
].

The juice contains a high level of manganese and can be used as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)[
1133
Title
Blueberry
Publication
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
Author
Jeff M. Jellin, PharmD, Founding Editor
Website
http://www.naturaldatabase.com
Publisher
Therapeutic Research Faculty.
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line database containing extensive information on medicinal plants and research relating to them.
].

Propagation

Seed - it germinates best in a light position. Sow late winter in a greenhouse in a lime-free potting mix and only just cover the seed[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. Stored seed might require a period of up to 3 months cold stratification[
113
Title
The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
Publication
 
Author
Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
Publisher
Athens Ga. Varsity Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0942375009
Description
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
]. Another report says that it is best to sow the seed in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Germination takes place best at around 21°c[
1050
Title
Fire Effects Information System
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.feis-crs.org/feis/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line information site with comprehensive information on over 1,100 species of plant. Mainly developed to supply information on the effects of fire on plants and animals, it also contains a wealth of other information on the plants
]. Once they are about 5cm tall, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Seed can remain viable for up to 12 years when properly stored]1050].
Rhizome cuttings in early spring or late summer and autumn. Dig up the rhizomes and cut them into lengths of 10cm or
longer. Place the cuttings in vermiculite at 21°c. Once the roots are established and meristematic activity is initiated, the small cuttings may be moved to individual pots with a peat sand soil mixture (1:1) potting soil. The soil should be kept fairly moist. When the plants are of a desired size, they can be planted in areas with moist soils and partial shade[
277
Title
Plants Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://plants.usda.gov/java/factSheet
Publisher
United States Department of Agriculture
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An online database with an excellent collection of fact sheets about native N. American plants.
].
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 - 8cm with a heel, August in a frame[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. Slow and difficult.
Layering in late summer or early autumn[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. Another report says that spring is the best time to layer[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Takes 18 months[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Division of suckers in spring or early autumn[
113
Title
The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
Publication
 
Author
Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
Publisher
Athens Ga. Varsity Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0942375009
Description
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
].

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