The genus Rubus, (especially the blackberries, which are often loosely referred to as Rubus fruticosus agg.) presents some of the most difficult taxonomic problems. This is partly due to the frequency of polyploidy; also to the frequent occurrence of hybridization; and also due to apomixis, where minor differences between plants are preserved because seedlings are genetically identical to their parent. As a result, differences of opinion on the number of species to be recognized from a given region can vary tremendously (for example, a treatment by M. L. Fernald[
] in 1950 recognized 205 species for the northern half of the eastern United States plus parts of southeastern Canada, whilst H. A. Gleason and A. Cronquist in 1991 recognized only 25)[
]. Where possible, a relatively conservative approach is taken here[
Rubus albicans Krašan
Rubus amoenus (Port. ex Vis.) Focke
Rubus anatolicus (Focke) Hausskn.
Rubus dalmaticus (Tratt.) Guss.
Rubus dalmatinus (Tratt.) Guss.
Rubus discolor amoenus (Port. ex Vis.) Nyman
Rubus fruticosus amoenus Port. ex Vis.
Rubus fruticosus dalmaticus Tratt.
Rubus fruticosus dalmatinus Tratt.
Rubus rotundifolius Krašan
Rubus sanguineus Friv.
Rubus turcomanicus Freyn
Rubus ulmifolius anatolicus Focke
Rubus ulmifolius dalmaticus (Tratt.) Evers
Rubus ulmifolius dalmatinus (Tratt.) Focke
Rubus ulmifolius sanctus (Schreb.) Sudre
Rubus sanctus is a deciduous shrub producimg each year a cluster of prickly, arching biennial stems from a woody rootstock. The apex of the stem often touches the ground at the end of the first year's growth and produces roots to form a new plant. The stems only produce leaves in their first year, forming flower-bearing branches in the second and dying after fruiting[
]. The plant grows up to 2 metres tall, spreading to form dense thickets.
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food. It is cultivated in southern Kazakstan for its fruits[
Europe - Ukraine, Balkans, Greece, Bulgaria; Asia - Turkey to Israel, through the Caucasus and Iran to Turkmenistan and Pakistan; N. Africa - Libya
Open scrub, rocky slopes, river banks, fixed dunes, coastal plains and waste places; at elevations up to 1,250 metres in Turkey[
]. Roadsides, riverbanks and sea shores, open dry slopes, forest clearings,
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Wild
Easily grown in a good well-drained loamy soil in sun or semi-shade[
This species does not form suckers[
Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[
Fruit - raw or cooked[
]. A blackberry-like fruit that is scarcely juicy[
]. A globose fruit with large drupelets[
A decoction of the roots is taken to alleviate pain and heal rheumatism[
The aerial parts of the plant have been shown to exhibit significant antiinflammatory activity[
]. The aerial parts of the plant, especially in the form of a methanolic extraction, has been shown to have a very effective wound healing ability[
An ethanolic extract of the roots and aerial parts has been shown to exert a significant antinociceptive (pain reduction) effect. However, the extract also had a tendency to induce gastric damage[
Most, if not all, thicket-forming species of Rubus have good erosion control value. They usually grow satisfactorily on barren and infertile soils and invade and occupy eroded areas. They also establish quickly on burns, old fields, and logged areas. Forming extensive and nearly impenetrable thickets, they can provide excellent cover for wildlife as well as nesting sites for small birds. They are often natural pioneer species, paving the way for woodlands to develop, but they should only really be used within their native range in order to avoid any risks of them invading other habitats[
The plant is used in blackberry breeding programmes[
A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit[
Seed - requires stratification and is best sown in early autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed requires one month stratification at about 3°c and is best sown as early as possible in the year. Prick out the seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring of the following year.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, mid summer in a frame[
Tip layering in July. Plant out in autumn.
Division in early spring or just before leaf-fall in the autumn[