Atulandra arragonensis Raf.
Verlangia sicula Neck. ex Raf.
Rhamnus graeca Boiss. & Reut.
Rhamnus oleoides L.
Rhamnus velutina Boiss.
Common Name: Espino Negro
Rhamnus lycioides is a much-branched, erect to prostrate, spiny, evergreen shrub; it usually grows from 10 - 200cm tall, occasionally reaching 300cm.
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a dye and medicine. It is sometimes grown as an ornamental, where it can be used as a hedge.
Species in this genus contain hydroxyanthracene derivatives which have a stimulant laxative effect upon the body, and many species are used traditionally as laxatives. In small doses, and for short periods, these can be safe and effective, but used over long periods they can weaken the body's natural ability to defecate and can have a range of long-lasting negative effects upon the body, including anaemia, malabsorption, haematuria and weight loss. Large single doses can cause severe purging.
Most of the Mediterranean regions of Europe, Africa and Western Asia, excluding mainland Italy and much of the Balkans,
Dry stony places[
]. Thickets, fissures and ledges of rocky slopes, stony soils, hedges, borders and clearings of woods, usually in basic substrate[
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Rhamnus lycioides is native to the Mediterranean region, with its hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters.
Succeeds in any reasonably good soil[
This species is closely related, and similar to Rhamnus oleoides[
The species in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[
A decoction of the berries is used as an external application in the treatment of rheumatic joint-enlargements[
The plant is sometimes grown as a hedge[
The flowers are a good source of nectar for bees[
A yellow dye is obtained from the fruit[
]. The sub-species Rhamnus lycioides graecus. (Boiss.&Rent.)Tutin. and Rhamnus lycioides oleoides (L.)Jahandiez.&Mafrl., have been specifically mentioned[
All the species of Rhamnus contain a mixture of compounds (mainly rhamnetin, quercitin and rhamnazin) that make a range of good quality dyes. The colour and its intensity depend upon what part of the plant is used as dyeing material (leaves, fruits and bark are most commonly used), at what period of growth it is collected and in what state it is used. With the use of the corresponding mordants (alum, copper and iron vitriols, tin dioxide, chromium, etc.) it is possible to obtain virtually the entire spectrum of colours from lemon-yellow to purple and dark cinnamon-brown, from olive-green to intensive blue and violet[
The dye extracts obtained from the bark, leaves and fruits are suitable for dyeing cottons, silks, woollens, leather, paper and wood. These dyes are often exceptional for their fastness[
Many European species also possess another valuable quality - they yield a beautiful 'smoky' hue to silks and cottons and are therefore often added to other natural and artificial dyes[
Although we have seen no specific information for this species, the seeds of Rhamnus species are generally rich in fatty oil and several of them are extracted for use as lubricating oils etc[
Seed - best sown in the autumn in a cold frame. Stored seed will require 1 - 2 months cold stratification at about 5° and should be sown as early in the year as possible in a cold frame or outdoor seedbed[
]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle, and grow them on in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, mid summer in a frame[
Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Layering in early spring[