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Useful Temperate Plants

Quercus suber

L.

Fagaceae

+ Synonyms

Quercus cintrana Welw. ex Nyman

Quercus corticosa Raf.

Quercus mitis Banks ex Lowe

Quercus occidentalis Gay

Quercus sardoa Gand.

Quercus subera St.-Lag.

Quercus suberosa Salisb.

Common Name: Cork Oak

No Image.

General Information

Quercus suber is an evergreen tree that usually grows up to 20 metres tall, occasionally reaching 25 metres. The bole can be up to 150cm in diameter. The trunk and larger branches of older trees are covered with a thick layer of corky bark[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
https://doi.org/10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
This tree is the main source of cork, a material that has been used by humans for more than 2,000 years and is the sixth-most important non-wood forest product produced globally. It is often cultivated, or managed, for its bark, especially in Iberia, but also in other areas incliding the Crimea, Caucasus, India and southwestern USA[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
]. The tree is also harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of materials, and is also sometimes grown as an ornamental and shade tree.

Known Hazards

All parts of the plant contain tannins. Whilst tannins are found in many foods, and have a range of medicinal uses. They are usually only present in low concentrations. In some foods made from oaks (particularly the seeds), the tannin content can be quite high unless the food is treated to reduce tannin content.
Tannins are only of low toxicity and, because of their bitter taste and astringency, are unlikely to be eaten in large quantities. However, if they are taken in excess, they can cause stomach pains; constipation followed by bloody diarrhoea: excessive thirst; and excessive urination[
293
Title
Poisonous Plants of North Carolina
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/poison.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent concise but comprehensive guide to toxic plants that grow in N. Carolina. It lists even those plants that are of very low toxicity, including several well-known food plants such as carrots and potatoes.
].

Botanical References

11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
50
Title
Flora Europaea
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Year
1964
ISBN
-
Description
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for Europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Range

Western Mediterranean - Portugal to the northern Balkans, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia

Habitat

A dominant tree in oak and pine-oak forests and open woodlands, growing on siliceous hills on the littoral[
89
Title
Flowers of the Mediterranean.
Publication
 
Author
Polunin. O. and Huxley. A.
Publisher
Hogarth Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0-7012-0784-1
Description
A very readable pocket flora that is well illustrated. Gives some information on plant uses.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
https://doi.org/10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height18.00 m
Growth RateSlow
PollinatorsWind
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental, Semi-cultivated, Wild

Cultivation Details

Quercus suber is not very cold-hardy, tolerating temperatures down to around -8°c for short periods when dormant[
98
Title
Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs.
Publication
Forestry Commission Bulletin
Author
Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. F.
Publisher
HMSO; London
Year
1982
ISBN
0-11-710152-4
Description
Very comprehensive guide to growing trees and shrubs from seed. Not for the casual reader.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. It grows best in areas with hot summers, doing well in mediterranean climates. In areas with cooler summers (even if the winters are mild), such as the maritime regions of the temperate zone, it often grows poorly, failing to properly ripen its wood and suffering frost damage over the winter[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Plants have a wide tolerance of rainfall - it is well adapted for growing in the drier Mediterranean climates, but also succeeds in parts of northern Portugal with an annual rainfall around 2,400 mm[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
https://doi.org/10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
]. The sub-species occidentalis is somewhat hardier than the type[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
] - there is at least one large healthy specimen of this subspecies at Kew Gardens in London (hardiness zone 7 - 8), it produced some seeds in the hot summer of 1989[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]. Trees grow well in Cornwall where there are many large specimens[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
49
Title
Shrubs for the Milder Counties.
Publication
 
Author
Arnold-Forster.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
Trees and shrubs that grow well in Cornwall and other mild areas of Britain. Fairly good, a standard reference book.
,
59
Title
Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall.
Publication
 
Author
Thurston.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
Trees and shrubs that succeed in Cornwall based on the authors own observations. Good but rather dated.
].
Grows best in a sunny to partially shady position[
352
Title
KemperCentreForHomeGardeningPlantFinder
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic cultivation details, plant uses, habitat etc for several thousand species of plants, mainly from the temperate zone.
], though young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Prefers a good, deep, fertile, well-drained loam, preferably somewhat sandy[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
https://doi.org/10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
]. Somewhat tolerant of alkaline soils according to one report[
188
Title
The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers
Publication
 
Author
Brickell. C.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd.
Year
1990
ISBN
0-86318-386-7
Description
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.
], whilst another says that it requires an acidic soil[
352
Title
KemperCentreForHomeGardeningPlantFinder
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic cultivation details, plant uses, habitat etc for several thousand species of plants, mainly from the temperate zone.
]. Tolerates moderate exposure, surviving well but being somewhat stunted[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Established plants are drought tolerant[
352
Title
KemperCentreForHomeGardeningPlantFinder
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic cultivation details, plant uses, habitat etc for several thousand species of plants, mainly from the temperate zone.
].
Cultivated for its bark in Europe, it is the main commercial source of cork[
50
Title
Flora Europaea
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Year
1964
ISBN
-
Description
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for Europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
,
89
Title
Flowers of the Mediterranean.
Publication
 
Author
Polunin. O. and Huxley. A.
Publisher
Hogarth Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0-7012-0784-1
Description
A very readable pocket flora that is well illustrated. Gives some information on plant uses.
]. The sub-species occidentalis has slightly thinner bark than the species[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
].
Trees have a tendency to form branches quite low down on the trunk - when grown as a source of cork these low branches are normally removed when small in order to maximize cork production[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
https://doi.org/10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
Trees are first harvested when they are 25 - 30 years old[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
], and then harvested every 6 - 12 years[
117
Title
The Book of Edible Nuts.
Publication
 
Author
Rosengarten. jnr. F.
Publisher
Walker & Co.
Year
1984
ISBN
0802707699
Description
A very readable and comprehensive guide. Well illustrated.
]. The bark must be removed carefully so as not to harm the tree and to ensure future harvests.
A large tree can yield up to 1 tonne of cork.
Trees are slow-growing but relatively long lived, to about 200 years or more)[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
https://doi.org/10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
The seeds can take one or two growing seasons to mature[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
https://doi.org/10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
The number of acorns produced varies widely from year to year, with occasional very highly productive years followed by others with little or no production[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
https://doi.org/10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
Transplants badly unless it is moved regularly, it should only be moved in September or as growth commences in late spring[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
].
Does not fruit well in Britain.
Most of the trees grown in Britain as Quercus suber are in fact Quercus suber occidentalis[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
].
Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[
88
Title
The Garden. Volume 112.
Publication
 
Author
RHS.
Publisher
Royal Horticultural Society
Year
1987
ISBN
-
Description
Snippets of information from the magazine of the RHS. In particular, there are articles on plants that are resistant to honey fungus, oriental vegetables, Cimicifuga spp, Passiflora species and Cucurbits.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

Edible Uses

Seed - cooked[
105
Title
Tanaka's Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Tanaka. T. & Nakao S.
Publisher
Keigaku Publishing; Tokyo
Year
1976
ISBN
-
Description
The most comprehensive list of edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
]. A famine food[
177
Title
Plants for Human Consumption
Publication
 
Author
Kunkel. G.
Publisher
Koeltz Scientific Books
Year
1984
ISBN
3874292169
Description
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
]. The narrow oval-oblong seed is 20 - 32mm long[
352
Title
KemperCentreForHomeGardeningPlantFinder
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Basic cultivation details, plant uses, habitat etc for several thousand species of plants, mainly from the temperate zone.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
https://doi.org/10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
The seed is usually cooked before eating, though it can also be eaten raw. It can be eaten whole, though it is more commonly dried, then ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread.
In some species, especially many of those classified as 'white oaks', the seeds are low in tannins and have a more or less sweet and agreeable flavour. The seed of most species, however, have a very bitter flavour, due especially to the presence of tannins. In these species there are various processes that can remove or at least reduce the amount of these bitter substances (although other water-soluble substances, including some minerals, will also be removed).
Tannins are water-soluble and therefore the easiest way to remove or reduce tannin levels is by soaking in water. A few different methods are listed:-
A traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter and allow the wet soil to gradually leach the tannins. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency and bitterness.
Another method was to wrap the seeds in a cloth bag and place them in a stream for several weeks.
Drying the seed and grinding it to a powder before soaking speeds up the process. The fastest method is to use hot water, by cooking the powder and changing the water several times until the cooking water is no longer bitter. Alternatively, you can use cold water (which is reported to produce the best quality flour). In this case, you soak the powdered seed in cold water for 12 - 24 hours then discard the water. Repeat this process for a number of times until the soak water is no longer bitter.

The roasted seed of many Quercus species has been used as a coffee substitute.

Medicinal

Quercus (oak) species are used in the traditional medicine of many cultures, being valued especially for their tannins. Various parts of the plant can be used, most frequently it is the leaves, bark, seeds, seed cups or the galls that are produced as a result of insect damage. A decoction or infusion is astringent, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, styptic and haemostatic. It is taken internally to treat conditions such as acute diarrhea, dysentery and haemorrhages. Externally, it is used as a mouthwash to treat toothache or gum problems and is applied topically as a wash on cuts, burns, various skin problems, haemorrhoids and oral, genital and anal mucosa inflammation[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
]. Extracts of the plant can be added to ointments and used for the healing of cuts[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
1231
Title
Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Some Quercus Species Growing in Turkey
Publication
FABAD J. Pharm. Sci., 32, 127-130, 2007
Author
Didem Söhretoğlu; Melike Ekizoğlu; Ekrem Kiliç; M. Koray Sak
Publisher
 
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

Agroforestry Uses:

A fairly wind-tolerant tree, it can be used in shelterbelt plantings[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

Other Uses

The thick bark is the main source of cork. Cork is a remarkable material. Light in weight, waterproof, rot-proof, flexible, chemically stable and a natural fire-retardant. It has many uses, including flooring, heat and sound insulation, floats and various industrial products, although nearly 80% of the total value of the cork crop is used for making wine stoppers. Cork based agglomerates are an ideal core material for components of lightweight structures, and have even been used in aerospace application[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
117
Title
The Book of Edible Nuts.
Publication
 
Author
Rosengarten. jnr. F.
Publisher
Walker & Co.
Year
1984
ISBN
0802707699
Description
A very readable and comprehensive guide. Well illustrated.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
https://doi.org/10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].

The leaves of most species in this genus are more or less rich in tannins. A mulch of the partially decayed leaves can be placed around vulnerable plants in order to repel slugs, snails, grubs etc, and these will in time break down to add humus and nutrients to the soil. Fresh leaves should be used with caution, however, since as these decay they utilize some of the nitrogen in the soil and thus can inhibit plant growth[
20
Title
Companion Planting for Successful Gardening.
Publication
 
Author
Riotte. L.
Publisher
Garden Way, Vermont, USA.
Year
1978
ISBN
0-88266-064-0
Description
Fairly good.
,
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff and is also used by many cultures to make ink[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
331
Title
Flora of Guatemala
Publication
 
Author
Standley P.C. & J. A. Steyermark
Website
http://www.archive.org/
Publisher
 
Year
1946 - 1976
ISBN
 
Description
A superb reference, though somewhat dated. Gives lots of plant uses as well as information on plant habit and habitat. The entire flora (13 volumes) can now be downloaded from http://www.archive.org/
].
The bark is rich in tannins and can be used as a dyestuff and for waterproofing rope[
331
Title
Flora of Guatemala
Publication
 
Author
Standley P.C. & J. A. Steyermark
Website
http://www.archive.org/
Publisher
 
Year
1946 - 1976
ISBN
 
Description
A superb reference, though somewhat dated. Gives lots of plant uses as well as information on plant habit and habitat. The entire flora (13 volumes) can now be downloaded from http://www.archive.org/
,
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]. On a 10% moisture basis, the bark contains 16.9% tannin[
223
Title
Vegetable Tannins
Publication
 
Author
Rottsieper. E.H.W.
Publisher
The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd.
Year
1946
ISBN
-
Description
A fairly detailed treatise on the major sources of vegetable tannins.
].

The wood is heavy with a specific gravity 0.8 - 1.0. It is not durable, warps and splits easily. It is mainly used for fuel and to make charcoal[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

Propagation

Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2019-11-13. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Quercus+suber>

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