Quercus longaeva Salisb.
Quercus lentula Gand.
Quercus ludens Gand.
Quercus lugdunensis Gand.
Quercus macroloba Gand.
Quercus madritensis Gand.
Quercus montivaga Gand.
Quercus natalis Gand.
Quercus nescensis Gand.
Quercus oelandica Gand.
Quercus petropolitana Gand.
Quercus pilosula Gand.
Quercus plebeia Gand.
Quercus pluriceps Gand.
Quercus quaerens Gand.
Quercus rossica Gand.
Quercus rostanii Gand.
Quercus scandica Gand.
Quercus schlosseriana Gand.
Quercus scotica Gand.
Quercus scythica Gand.
Quercus semipinnata Gand.
Quercus sessiliflora condensata (Schur) Nyman
Quercus similata Gand.
Quercus stilbophylla Gand.
Quercus svecica Borbás
Quercus tanaicensis Gand.
Quercus tephrochlamys Gand.
Quercus tholeyroniana Gand.
Quercus transiens Gand.
Quercus tristis Gand.
Quercus urbica Gand.
Quercus vallicola Gand.
Quercus verecunda Gand.
Quercus versatilis Gand.
Quercus vialis Gand.
Quercus volhynica Gand.
Quercus wolgensis Gand.
Quercus horizontalis Dippel
Quercus rubicunda Dippel
Quercus sieboldii Dippel
Quercus speciensis Dippel
Quercus tozzae Dippel
Quercus longiglans Debeaux
Quercus longipedunculata Cariot & St.-Lag.
Quercus vulgaris Bubani
Quercus estremadurensis O.Schwarz
Quercus sessiliflora microcarpa (Lapeyr.) Nyman
Quercus sessiliflora pedemontana (Colla) Nyman
Quercus lucorum Vuk.
Quercus welandii Simonk.
Quercus annenkowii Kauffm. ex Trautv.
Quercus asterotricha Borbás & Csató
Quercus bedoi Borbás
Quercus brevipes Borbás
Quercus malacophylla asterotricha Borbás
Quercus cunisecta Borbás
Quercus monorensis Simonk.
Quercus pilosa (Schur) Simonk.
Quercus abbreviata Vuk.
Quercus avellanoides Vuk.
Quercus bruttia Borbás
Quercus castanoides Vuk.
Quercus coriifolia Vuk.
Quercus farinosa Vuk.
Quercus tetracarpa Vuk.
Quercus accessiva Gand.
Quercus accomodata Gand.
Quercus alligata Gand.
Quercus amoenifolia Gand.
Quercus apula Gand.
Quercus assimilis Gand.
Quercus asturica Gand.
Quercus banatica Gand.
Quercus batavica Gand.
Quercus bavarica Gand.
Quercus belgica Gand.
Quercus bellogradensis Borbás
Quercus borealis pilosa (Schur) Simonk.
Quercus commiserata Gand.
Quercus croatica Gand.
Quercus dacica Gand.
Quercus danubialis Gand.
Quercus discredens Gand.
Quercus emarginulata Gand.
Quercus esthonica Gand.
Quercus frutetorum Gand.
Quercus grandis Gand.
Quercus grecescui Gand.
Quercus haerens Gand.
Quercus hohenackeri Gand.
Quercus immodica Gand.
Quercus implicata Gand.
Quercus kunzei Gand.
Quercus lanuginosa Beck
Quercus altissima G.Kirchn.
Quercus fennessii A.DC.
Quercus hentzei G.Kirchn.
Quercus lasistan Kotschy ex A.DC.
Quercus pseudotscharakensis Kotschy ex A.DC.
Quercus rubens G.Kirchn.
Quercus tennesi Wesm.
Quercus tomentosa Ehrh. ex A.DC.
Quercus tricolor G.Kirchn.
Quercus turbinata Kit.
Quercus virgata Martrin-Donos
Quercus extensa (Schur) Schur
Quercus pseudosessilis Schur
Quercus subvelutina Schur
Quercus filipendula Schloss. & Vuk.
Quercus louettii de Vos
Quercus cylindracea Guss. ex Parl.
Quercus ettingeri Vuk.
Quercus palmata Vuk.
Quercus afghanistanensis auct.
Quercus atropurpurea K.Koch
Quercus atrosanguinea K.Koch
Quercus aurea K.Koch
Quercus comptoniifolia K.Koch
Quercus concordia auct.
Quercus cuprea K.Koch
Quercus cupressoides K.Koch
Quercus dissecta K.Koch
Quercus geltowiensis K.Koch
Quercus nigricans K.Koch
Quercus pectinata auct.
Quercus pulverulenta K.Koch
Quercus scolopendrifolia K.Koch
Quercus australis A.Kern.
Quercus brevipes A.Kern.
Quercus dilatata A.Kern.
Quercus argentea Morogues
Quercus microcarpa Morogues
Quercus ochracea Morogues
Quercus arenaria Borbás
Quercus pseudopedunculata Vuk.
Quercus aesculus Boiss.
Quercus pseudoschorochensis Boiss.
Quercus crispa Vuk.
Quercus acutiloba Borbás
Quercus appenina cylindracea (Guss. ex Parl.) Nyman
Quercus appenina rumelica (Griseb. & Schenk) Nyman
Quercus pendulina filipendula (Schloss. & Vuk.) Nyman
Quercus brutia Ten.
Quercus thomasii Ten.
Quercus imeretina Steven ex Woronow
Quercus sessiliflora tcharachensis Albov
Quercus pedunculiflora K.Koch
Quercus erucifolia Steven
Quercus longipes Steven
Quercus kurdica Wenz.
Quercus pinnatipartita (Boiss.) O.Schwarz
Quercus mestensis Bondev & Gancev
Quercus petraea pinnatifida Cristur.
Quercus femina Mill.
Quercus foemida Mill.
Quercus fastigiata Lam.
Quercus racemosa Lam.
Quercus fructipendula Schrank
Quercus pedunculata Hoffm.
Quercus cupulatus Gilib.
Quercus auzin Secondat ex Bosc
Quercus viminalis Bosc
Quercus pyramidalis C.C.Gmel.
Quercus microcarpa Lapeyr.
Quercus paleacea Desf.
Quercus pyrenaica Steven
Quercus atrovirens Sm.
Quercus pendulina Kit.
Quercus laciniata Lodd.
Quercus parmenteria Mutel
Quercus pedemontana Colla
Quercus pendula (Neill) Lodd.
Quercus falkenbergensis Booth ex Loudon
Quercus purpurea Lodd. ex Loudon
Quercus hodginsii Lodd. ex Steud.
Quercus salicifolia Steud.
Quercus extensa Schur
Quercus hispanica Willk.
Quercus rumelica Griseb. & Schenk
Quercus filicifolia Lem.
Quercus aestivalis Steven
Quercus axillaris Schur
Quercus condensata Schur
Quercus germanica Lasch
Quercus hiemalis Steven
Quercus hyemalis Steven
Quercus pendula viminalis Schur
Quercus tardiflora Czern. ex Stev.
Quercus haas Kotschy
Quercus malacophylla (Schur) Schur
Common Name: Pedunculate Oak
Quercus robur is a deciduous tree usually growing up to 30 metres tall, though specimens 40 - 50 metres tall have been reported. The trunk usually forms several stout branches in the lower canopy[
This is one of the most important forest trees of Europe, yielding an excellent timber[
]. It is also harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine, source of materials and occasionally as a food. One of the most important wildlife trees in Europe, it is often grown in managed woodlands and is sometimes grown as an ornamental.
Quercus robor is a widespread species with a large extent of occurrence. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
All parts of the plant contain tannins. Whilst tannins are found in many foods, and have a range of medicinal uses. They are usually only present in low concentrations. In some foods made from oaks (particularly the seeds), the tannin content can be quite high unless the food is treated to reduce tannin content.
Tannins are only of low toxicity and, because of their bitter taste and astringency, are unlikely to be eaten in large quantities. However, if they are taken in excess, they can cause stomach pains; constipation followed by bloody diarrhoea: excessive thirst; and excessive urination[
Found almost throughout Europe and east to the Caucasus and Turkey
Often the dominant woodland tree, especially on clay soils and in the eastern half of Britain, but avoiding acid peat and shallow limestone soils[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Ornamental, Semi-cultivated, Wild
Quercus robor is a very cold-hardy tree, tolerating temperatures down to around -30°c when dormant.
Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[
]. Young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[
]. Succeeds in heavy clay soils[
] and in wet soils so long as the ground is not water-logged for long periods[
]. Dislikes dry or shallow soils but is otherwise drought tolerant once it is established[
]. Tolerant of exposed sites though it dislikes salt-laden winds[
The oak is a very important timber tree in Britain, it is also a very important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterfly[
], there are 284 insect species associated with this tree[
]. It has often been coppiced or pollarded for its wood in the past[
], though this should not be done too frequently[
], about once every 50 years is the average.
The tree flowers on new growth produced in spring, the seed ripening in its first year[
Older trees have a thick corky bark and this can protect them from forest fires, young trees will often regenerate from the base if cut down or killed back by a fire[
Trees can be managed by coppicing in order to provide material for basket making, fuel, construction etc[
Seedlings soon develop a taproot and become intolerant of root disturbance, they should be planted into their permanent positions whilst young[
Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus[
Immune to attacks by the tortix moth[
]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[
Seed - cooked[
]. Nourishing but indigestible[
]. The seed is 15 - 18mm long and 10 - 13mm wide[
]. Chopped and roasted, the seed is used as an almond substitute[
]. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread[
]. The seed contains bitter tannins[
The seed is usually cooked before eating, though it can also be eaten raw. It can be eaten whole, though it is more commonly dried, then ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread.
In some species, especially many of those classified as 'white oaks', the seeds are low in tannins and have a more or less sweet and agreeable flavour. The seed of most species, however, have a very bitter flavour, due especially to the presence of tannins. In these species there are various processes that can remove or at least reduce the amount of these bitter substances (although other water-soluble substances, including some minerals, will also be removed).
Tannins are water-soluble and therefore the easiest way to remove or reduce tannin levels is by soaking in water. A few different methods are listed:-
A traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter and allow the wet soil to gradually leach the tannins. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency and bitterness.
Another method was to wrap the seeds in a cloth bag and place them in a stream for several weeks.
Drying the seed and grinding it to a powder before soaking speeds up the process. The fastest method is to use hot water, by cooking the powder and changing the water several times until the cooking water is no longer bitter. Alternatively, you can use cold water (which is reported to produce the best quality flour). In this case, you soak the powdered seed in cold water for 12 - 24 hours then discard the water. Repeat this process for a number of times until the soak water is no longer bitter.
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[
An edible gum is obtained from the bark[
]. Another report says that an edible manna is obtained from the plant and that it is used instead of butter in cooking[
]. This report probably refers to the gum[
The oak tree has a long history of medicinal use. It is anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, decongestant, haemostatic and tonic[
]. The bark is the part of the plant that is most commonly used[
], though other parts such as the galls, seeds and seed cups are also sometimes used[
]. A decoction of the bark is useful in the treatment of chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, intermittent fevers, haemorrhages etc[
Externally, it is used to bathe wounds, skin eruptions, sweaty feet, piles etc[
]. It is also used as a vaginal douche for genital inflammations and discharge, and also as a wash for throat and mouth infections[
The bark is harvested from branches 5 - 12 years old, and is dried for later use[
Quercus (oak) species are used in the traditional medicine of many cultures, being valued especially for their tannins. Various parts of the plant can be used, most frequently it is the leaves, bark, seeds, seed cups or the galls that are produced as a result of insect damage. A decoction or infusion is astringent, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, styptic and haemostatic. It is taken internally to treat conditions such as acute diarrhea, dysentery and haemorrhages. Externally, it is used as a mouthwash to treat toothache or gum problems and is applied topically as a wash on cuts, burns, various skin problems, haemorrhoids and oral, genital and anal mucosa inflammation[
]. Extracts of the plant can be added to ointments and used for the healing of cuts[
The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Despondency', 'Despair, but never ceasing effort'[
A homeopathic remedy is made from the bark. It is used in the treatment of disorders of the spleen and gall bladder[
This is one of several Quercus species which are either cultivated or semi-cultivated in southern France and Italy in order to provide an environment in which to grow the various species of truffles[
The leaves of most species in this genus are more or less rich in tannins. A mulch of the leaves can be placed around vulnerable plants in order to repel slugs, snails, grubs etc. Fresh leaves should be used with caution, since these can utilize some of the nitrogen in the soil and this inhibit plant growth[
The bark is an ingredient of 'Quick Return' herbal compost activator[
]. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost[
]. The bark is very rich in calcium[
Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff[
A black dye and an excellent long-lasting ink is made from the oak galls, mixed with salts of iron[
]. The colour is not very durable[
]. When mixed with alum, the dye is brown and with salts of tin it is yellow[
The wood is a source of tar, quaiacol, acetic acid, creosote and tannin[
Tannin is extracted commercially from the bark and is also found in the leaves[
]. On a 10% moisture basis, the bark contains11.6% tannin and the wood 9.2%[
]. The bark strips easily from the wood in April and May[
A purplish dye is obtained from an infusion of the bark with a small quantity of copperas[
]. It is not bright, but is said to be durable[
The heartwood is a light tan to biscuit-colour. The grain is usually straight, though irregular or cross-grained material can occur. The wood is hard, tough, durable even under water. It dries slowly, with a tendency to split and check; there is medium movement in service. The wood bends well with steam; there is a moderate to severe blunting effect on cutters; it polishes well, holds nails well, though only non-ferrous or galvanized nails should be used or the acidic wood will cause staining and corrosion. The wood is highly valued for a wide range of purposes including furniture, construction, boat building, cooperage, high class joinery etc[
The wood is an excellent fuel, burning well and giving off a lot of heat[
] and makes a good quality charcoal[
Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[
]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.