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Useful Temperate Plants

Quercus robur

L.

Fagaceae

+ Synonyms

Quercus longaeva Salisb.

Quercus lentula Gand.

Quercus ludens Gand.

Quercus lugdunensis Gand.

Quercus macroloba Gand.

Quercus madritensis Gand.

Quercus montivaga Gand.

Quercus natalis Gand.

Quercus nescensis Gand.

Quercus oelandica Gand.

Quercus petropolitana Gand.

Quercus pilosula Gand.

Quercus plebeia Gand.

Quercus pluriceps Gand.

Quercus quaerens Gand.

Quercus rossica Gand.

Quercus rostanii Gand.

Quercus scandica Gand.

Quercus schlosseriana Gand.

Quercus scotica Gand.

Quercus scythica Gand.

Quercus semipinnata Gand.

Quercus sessiliflora condensata (Schur) Nyman

Quercus similata Gand.

Quercus stilbophylla Gand.

Quercus svecica Borbás

Quercus tanaicensis Gand.

Quercus tephrochlamys Gand.

Quercus tholeyroniana Gand.

Quercus transiens Gand.

Quercus tristis Gand.

Quercus urbica Gand.

Quercus vallicola Gand.

Quercus verecunda Gand.

Quercus versatilis Gand.

Quercus vialis Gand.

Quercus volhynica Gand.

Quercus wolgensis Gand.

Quercus horizontalis Dippel

Quercus rubicunda Dippel

Quercus sieboldii Dippel

Quercus speciensis Dippel

Quercus tozzae Dippel

Quercus longiglans Debeaux

Quercus longipedunculata Cariot & St.-Lag.

Quercus vulgaris Bubani

Quercus estremadurensis O.Schwarz

Quercus sessiliflora microcarpa (Lapeyr.) Nyman

Quercus sessiliflora pedemontana (Colla) Nyman

Quercus lucorum Vuk.

Quercus welandii Simonk.

Quercus annenkowii Kauffm. ex Trautv.

Quercus asterotricha Borbás & Csató

Quercus bedoi Borbás

Quercus brevipes Borbás

Quercus malacophylla asterotricha Borbás

Quercus cunisecta Borbás

Quercus monorensis Simonk.

Quercus pilosa (Schur) Simonk.

Quercus abbreviata Vuk.

Quercus avellanoides Vuk.

Quercus bruttia Borbás

Quercus castanoides Vuk.

Quercus coriifolia Vuk.

Quercus farinosa Vuk.

Quercus tetracarpa Vuk.

Quercus accessiva Gand.

Quercus accomodata Gand.

Quercus alligata Gand.

Quercus amoenifolia Gand.

Quercus apula Gand.

Quercus assimilis Gand.

Quercus asturica Gand.

Quercus banatica Gand.

Quercus batavica Gand.

Quercus bavarica Gand.

Quercus belgica Gand.

Quercus bellogradensis Borbás

Quercus borealis pilosa (Schur) Simonk.

Quercus commiserata Gand.

Quercus croatica Gand.

Quercus dacica Gand.

Quercus danubialis Gand.

Quercus discredens Gand.

Quercus emarginulata Gand.

Quercus esthonica Gand.

Quercus frutetorum Gand.

Quercus grandis Gand.

Quercus grecescui Gand.

Quercus haerens Gand.

Quercus hohenackeri Gand.

Quercus immodica Gand.

Quercus implicata Gand.

Quercus kunzei Gand.

Quercus lanuginosa Beck

Quercus altissima G.Kirchn.

Quercus fennessii A.DC.

Quercus hentzei G.Kirchn.

Quercus lasistan Kotschy ex A.DC.

Quercus pseudotscharakensis Kotschy ex A.DC.

Quercus rubens G.Kirchn.

Quercus tennesi Wesm.

Quercus tomentosa Ehrh. ex A.DC.

Quercus tricolor G.Kirchn.

Quercus turbinata Kit.

Quercus virgata Martrin-Donos

Quercus extensa (Schur) Schur

Quercus pseudosessilis Schur

Quercus subvelutina Schur

Quercus filipendula Schloss. & Vuk.

Quercus louettii de Vos

Quercus cylindracea Guss. ex Parl.

Quercus ettingeri Vuk.

Quercus palmata Vuk.

Quercus afghanistanensis auct.

Quercus atropurpurea K.Koch

Quercus atrosanguinea K.Koch

Quercus aurea K.Koch

Quercus comptoniifolia K.Koch

Quercus concordia auct.

Quercus cuprea K.Koch

Quercus cupressoides K.Koch

Quercus dissecta K.Koch

Quercus geltowiensis K.Koch

Quercus nigricans K.Koch

Quercus pectinata auct.

Quercus pulverulenta K.Koch

Quercus scolopendrifolia K.Koch

Quercus australis A.Kern.

Quercus brevipes A.Kern.

Quercus dilatata A.Kern.

Quercus argentea Morogues

Quercus microcarpa Morogues

Quercus ochracea Morogues

Quercus arenaria Borbás

Quercus pseudopedunculata Vuk.

Quercus aesculus Boiss.

Quercus pseudoschorochensis Boiss.

Quercus crispa Vuk.

Quercus acutiloba Borbás

Quercus appenina cylindracea (Guss. ex Parl.) Nyman

Quercus appenina rumelica (Griseb. & Schenk) Nyman

Quercus pendulina filipendula (Schloss. & Vuk.) Nyman

Quercus brutia Ten.

Quercus thomasii Ten.

Quercus imeretina Steven ex Woronow

Quercus sessiliflora tcharachensis Albov

Quercus pedunculiflora K.Koch

Quercus erucifolia Steven

Quercus longipes Steven

Quercus kurdica Wenz.

Quercus pinnatipartita (Boiss.) O.Schwarz

Quercus mestensis Bondev & Gancev

Quercus petraea pinnatifida Cristur.

Quercus femina Mill.

Quercus foemida Mill.

Quercus fastigiata Lam.

Quercus racemosa Lam.

Quercus fructipendula Schrank

Quercus pedunculata Hoffm.

Quercus cupulatus Gilib.

Quercus auzin Secondat ex Bosc

Quercus viminalis Bosc

Quercus pyramidalis C.C.Gmel.

Quercus microcarpa Lapeyr.

Quercus paleacea Desf.

Quercus pyrenaica Steven

Quercus atrovirens Sm.

Quercus pendulina Kit.

Quercus laciniata Lodd.

Quercus parmenteria Mutel

Quercus pedemontana Colla

Quercus pendula (Neill) Lodd.

Quercus falkenbergensis Booth ex Loudon

Quercus purpurea Lodd. ex Loudon

Quercus hodginsii Lodd. ex Steud.

Quercus salicifolia Steud.

Quercus extensa Schur

Quercus hispanica Willk.

Quercus rumelica Griseb. & Schenk

Quercus filicifolia Lem.

Quercus aestivalis Steven

Quercus axillaris Schur

Quercus condensata Schur

Quercus germanica Lasch

Quercus hiemalis Steven

Quercus hyemalis Steven

Quercus pendula viminalis Schur

Quercus tardiflora Czern. ex Stev.

Quercus haas Kotschy

Quercus malacophylla (Schur) Schur

Common Name: Pedunculate Oak

No Image.

General Information

Quercus robur is a deciduous tree usually growing up to 30 metres tall, though specimens 40 - 50 metres tall have been reported. The trunk usually forms several stout branches in the lower canopy[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
].
This is one of the most important forest trees of Europe, yielding an excellent timber[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
]. It is also harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine, source of materials and occasionally as a food. One of the most important wildlife trees in Europe, it is often grown in managed woodlands and is sometimes grown as an ornamental.
Quercus robor is a widespread species with a large extent of occurrence. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

All parts of the plant contain tannins. Whilst tannins are found in many foods, and have a range of medicinal uses. They are usually only present in low concentrations. In some foods made from oaks (particularly the seeds), the tannin content can be quite high unless the food is treated to reduce tannin content.
Tannins are only of low toxicity and, because of their bitter taste and astringency, are unlikely to be eaten in large quantities. However, if they are taken in excess, they can cause stomach pains; constipation followed by bloody diarrhoea: excessive thirst; and excessive urination[
293
Title
Poisonous Plants of North Carolina
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/poison.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent concise but comprehensive guide to toxic plants that grow in N. Carolina. It lists even those plants that are of very low toxicity, including several well-known food plants such as carrots and potatoes.
].

Botanical References

11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
17
Title
Flora of the British Isles.
Publication
 
Author
Clapham, Tutin and Warburg.
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Year
1962
ISBN
-
Description
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Range

Found almost throughout Europe and east to the Caucasus and Turkey

Habitat

Often the dominant woodland tree, especially on clay soils and in the eastern half of Britain, but avoiding acid peat and shallow limestone soils[
17
Title
Flora of the British Isles.
Publication
 
Author
Clapham, Tutin and Warburg.
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Year
1962
ISBN
-
Description
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
].

Properties

Conservation StatusLeast Concern
Edibility Rating *  *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *  *
HabitDeciduous Tree
Height25.00 m
Growth RateSlow
PollinatorsWind
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Semi-cultivated, Wild

Cultivation Details

Quercus robor is a very cold-hardy tree, tolerating temperatures down to around -30°c when dormant.
Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. Young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Succeeds in heavy clay soils[
13
Title
Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Triska. Dr.
Publisher
Hamlyn
Year
1975
ISBN
0-600-33545-3
Description
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.
] and in wet soils so long as the ground is not water-logged for long periods[
186
Title
Planting Native Trees and Shrubs.
Publication
 
Author
Beckett. G. and K.
Publisher
Jarrold
Year
1979
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.
]. Dislikes dry or shallow soils but is otherwise drought tolerant once it is established[
186
Title
Planting Native Trees and Shrubs.
Publication
 
Author
Beckett. G. and K.
Publisher
Jarrold
Year
1979
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.
]. Tolerant of exposed sites though it dislikes salt-laden winds[
186
Title
Planting Native Trees and Shrubs.
Publication
 
Author
Beckett. G. and K.
Publisher
Jarrold
Year
1979
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.
].
The oak is a very important timber tree in Britain, it is also a very important food plant for the caterpillars of many species of butterfly[
30
Title
Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe.
Publication
 
Author
Carter D.
Publisher
Pan
Year
1982
ISBN
0-330-26642-x
Description
An excellent book on Lepidoptera, it also lists their favourite food plants.
], there are 284 insect species associated with this tree[
24
Title
Making a Wildlife Garden.
Publication
 
Author
Baines. C.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
Fairly good with lots of ideas about creating wildlife areas in the garden.
]. It has often been coppiced or pollarded for its wood in the past[
23
Title
Complete Book of Baskets and Basketry.
Publication
 
Author
Wright. D.
Publisher
David & Charles; Newton Abbot.
Year
1977
ISBN
0-7153-7449-4
Description
Not that complete but very readable and well illustrated.
], though this should not be done too frequently[
186
Title
Planting Native Trees and Shrubs.
Publication
 
Author
Beckett. G. and K.
Publisher
Jarrold
Year
1979
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.
], about once every 50 years is the average.
The tree flowers on new growth produced in spring, the seed ripening in its first year[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
229
Title
The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History.
Publication
 
Author
Elias. T.
Publisher
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.
Year
1980
ISBN
0442238622
Description
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.
].
Older trees have a thick corky bark and this can protect them from forest fires, young trees will often regenerate from the base if cut down or killed back by a fire[
186
Title
Planting Native Trees and Shrubs.
Publication
 
Author
Beckett. G. and K.
Publisher
Jarrold
Year
1979
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.
].
Trees can be managed by coppicing in order to provide material for basket making, fuel, construction etc[
23
Title
Complete Book of Baskets and Basketry.
Publication
 
Author
Wright. D.
Publisher
David & Charles; Newton Abbot.
Year
1977
ISBN
0-7153-7449-4
Description
Not that complete but very readable and well illustrated.
].
Seedlings soon develop a taproot and become intolerant of root disturbance, they should be planted into their permanent positions whilst young[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
].
Hybridizes freely with other members of the genus[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Immune to attacks by the tortix moth[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[
88
Title
The Garden. Volume 112.
Publication
 
Author
RHS.
Publisher
Royal Horticultural Society
Year
1987
ISBN
-
Description
Snippets of information from the magazine of the RHS. In particular, there are articles on plants that are resistant to honey fungus, oriental vegetables, Cimicifuga spp, Passiflora species and Cucurbits.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

Edible Uses

Seed - cooked[
2
Title
Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Hedrick. U. P.
Publisher
Dover Publications
Year
1972
ISBN
0-486-20459-6
Description
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
,
5
Title
Food for Free.
Publication
 
Author
Mabey. R.
Publisher
Collins
Year
1974
ISBN
0-00-219060-5
Description
Edible wild plants found in Britain. Fairly comprehensive, very few pictures and rather optimistic on the desirability of some of the plants.
,
8
Title
Free for All.
Publication
 
Author
Ceres.
Publisher
Thorsons Publishers
Year
1977
ISBN
0-7225-0445-4
Description
Edible wild plants in Britain. Small booklet, nothing special.
,
13
Title
Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Triska. Dr.
Publisher
Hamlyn
Year
1975
ISBN
0-600-33545-3
Description
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.
]. Nourishing but indigestible[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
]. The seed is 15 - 18mm long and 10 - 13mm wide[
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
]. Chopped and roasted, the seed is used as an almond substitute[
8
Title
Free for All.
Publication
 
Author
Ceres.
Publisher
Thorsons Publishers
Year
1977
ISBN
0-7225-0445-4
Description
Edible wild plants in Britain. Small booklet, nothing special.
]. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
]. The seed contains bitter tannins[
63
Title
Nuts.
Publication
 
Author
Howes. F. N.
Publisher
Faber
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
Rather old but still a masterpiece. Has sections on tropical and temperate plants with edible nuts plus a section on nut plants in Britain. Very readable.
].
The seed is usually cooked before eating, though it can also be eaten raw. It can be eaten whole, though it is more commonly dried, then ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread.
In some species, especially many of those classified as 'white oaks', the seeds are low in tannins and have a more or less sweet and agreeable flavour. The seed of most species, however, have a very bitter flavour, due especially to the presence of tannins. In these species there are various processes that can remove or at least reduce the amount of these bitter substances (although other water-soluble substances, including some minerals, will also be removed).
Tannins are water-soluble and therefore the easiest way to remove or reduce tannin levels is by soaking in water. A few different methods are listed:-
A traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter and allow the wet soil to gradually leach the tannins. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency and bitterness.
Another method was to wrap the seeds in a cloth bag and place them in a stream for several weeks.
Drying the seed and grinding it to a powder before soaking speeds up the process. The fastest method is to use hot water, by cooking the powder and changing the water several times until the cooking water is no longer bitter. Alternatively, you can use cold water (which is reported to produce the best quality flour). In this case, you soak the powdered seed in cold water for 12 - 24 hours then discard the water. Repeat this process for a number of times until the soak water is no longer bitter.

The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[
21
Title
The Herb Book.
Publication
 
Author
Lust. J.
Publisher
Bantam books
Year
1983
ISBN
0-553-23827-2
Description
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.
,
61
Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
].

An edible gum is obtained from the bark[
177
Title
Plants for Human Consumption.
Publication
 
Author
Kunkel. G.
Publisher
Koeltz Scientific Books
Year
1984
ISBN
3874292169
Description
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
]. Another report says that an edible manna is obtained from the plant and that it is used instead of butter in cooking[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
]. This report probably refers to the gum[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

Medicinal

The oak tree has a long history of medicinal use. It is anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, astringent, decongestant, haemostatic and tonic[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
7
Title
Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Chiej. R.
Publisher
MacDonald
Year
1984
ISBN
0-356-10541-5
Description
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
,
9
Title
Edible and Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Launert. E.
Publisher
Hamlyn
Year
1981
ISBN
0-600-37216-2
Description
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
,
13
Title
Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Triska. Dr.
Publisher
Hamlyn
Year
1975
ISBN
0-600-33545-3
Description
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.
,
21
Title
The Herb Book.
Publication
 
Author
Lust. J.
Publisher
Bantam books
Year
1983
ISBN
0-553-23827-2
Description
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.
,
165
Title
The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism.
Publication
 
Author
Mills. S. Y.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent small herbal.
]. The bark is the part of the plant that is most commonly used[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
], though other parts such as the galls, seeds and seed cups are also sometimes used[
7
Title
Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Chiej. R.
Publisher
MacDonald
Year
1984
ISBN
0-356-10541-5
Description
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
]. A decoction of the bark is useful in the treatment of chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, intermittent fevers, haemorrhages etc[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
].
Externally, it is used to bathe wounds, skin eruptions, sweaty feet, piles etc[
9
Title
Edible and Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Launert. E.
Publisher
Hamlyn
Year
1981
ISBN
0-600-37216-2
Description
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
]. It is also used as a vaginal douche for genital inflammations and discharge, and also as a wash for throat and mouth infections[
9
Title
Edible and Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Launert. E.
Publisher
Hamlyn
Year
1981
ISBN
0-600-37216-2
Description
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
].
The bark is harvested from branches 5 - 12 years old, and is dried for later use[
9
Title
Edible and Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Launert. E.
Publisher
Hamlyn
Year
1981
ISBN
0-600-37216-2
Description
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
].

Quercus (oak) species are used in the traditional medicine of many cultures, being valued especially for their tannins. Various parts of the plant can be used, most frequently it is the leaves, bark, seeds, seed cups or the galls that are produced as a result of insect damage. A decoction or infusion is astringent, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, styptic and haemostatic. It is taken internally to treat conditions such as acute diarrhea, dysentery and haemorrhages. Externally, it is used as a mouthwash to treat toothache or gum problems and is applied topically as a wash on cuts, burns, various skin problems, haemorrhoids and oral, genital and anal mucosa inflammation[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
]. Extracts of the plant can be added to ointments and used for the healing of cuts[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
1231
Title
Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Some Quercus Species Growing in Turkey
Publication
FABAD J. Pharm. Sci., 32, 127-130, 2007
Author
Didem Söhretoğlu; Melike Ekizoğlu; Ekrem Kiliç; M. Koray Sak
Publisher
 
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Despondency', 'Despair, but never ceasing effort'[
209
Title
Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies
Publication
 
Author
Chancellor. P. M.
Publisher
C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd.
Year
1985
ISBN
85207 002 0
Description
Details the 38 remedies plus how and where to prescribe them.
].

A homeopathic remedy is made from the bark. It is used in the treatment of disorders of the spleen and gall bladder[
9
Title
Edible and Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Launert. E.
Publisher
Hamlyn
Year
1981
ISBN
0-600-37216-2
Description
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
].

Agroforestry Uses:

This is one of several Quercus species which are either cultivated or semi-cultivated in southern France and Italy in order to provide an environment in which to grow the various species of truffles[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
].

Other Uses

The leaves of most species in this genus are more or less rich in tannins. A mulch of the leaves can be placed around vulnerable plants in order to repel slugs, snails, grubs etc. Fresh leaves should be used with caution, since these can utilize some of the nitrogen in the soil and this inhibit plant growth[
20
Title
Companion Planting for Successful Gardening.
Publication
 
Author
Riotte. L.
Publisher
Garden Way, Vermont, USA.
Year
1978
ISBN
0-88266-064-0
Description
Fairly good.
,
201
Title
A - Z of Companion Planting.
Publication
 
Author
Allardice.P.
Publisher
Cassell Publishers Ltd.
Year
1993
ISBN
0-304-34324-2
Description
A well produced and very readable book.
,
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

The bark is an ingredient of 'Quick Return' herbal compost activator[
32
Title
Commonsense Compost Making.
Publication
 
Author
Bruce. M. E.
Publisher
Faber
Year
1977
ISBN
0-571-09990-4
Description
Excellent little booklet dealing with how to make compost by using herbs to activate the heap. Gives full details of the herbs that are used.
]. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]. The bark is very rich in calcium[
18
Title
Companion Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B.
Publisher
Watkins
Year
1979
ISBN
-
Description
Details of beneficial and antagonistic relationships between neighbouring plants.
].

Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
].
A black dye and an excellent long-lasting ink is made from the oak galls, mixed with salts of iron[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
7
Title
Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Chiej. R.
Publisher
MacDonald
Year
1984
ISBN
0-356-10541-5
Description
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
,
66
Title
From Agar to Zenery.
Publication
 
Author
Freethy. R.
Publisher
The Crowood Press
Year
1985
ISBN
0-946284-51-2
Description
Very readable, giving details on plant uses based on the authors own experiences.
]. The colour is not very durable[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
]. When mixed with alum, the dye is brown and with salts of tin it is yellow[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
].

The wood is a source of tar, quaiacol, acetic acid, creosote and tannin[
123
Title
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th edition.
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
It contains a few things of interest to the plant project.
].
Tannin is extracted commercially from the bark and is also found in the leaves[
223
Title
Vegetable Tannins
Publication
 
Author
Rottsieper. E.H.W.
Publisher
The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd.
Year
1946
ISBN
-
Description
A fairly detailed treatise on the major sources of vegetable tannins.
]. On a 10% moisture basis, the bark contains11.6% tannin and the wood 9.2%[
223
Title
Vegetable Tannins
Publication
 
Author
Rottsieper. E.H.W.
Publisher
The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd.
Year
1946
ISBN
-
Description
A fairly detailed treatise on the major sources of vegetable tannins.
]. The bark strips easily from the wood in April and May[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
].

A purplish dye is obtained from an infusion of the bark with a small quantity of copperas[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
]. It is not bright, but is said to be durable[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
].

The heartwood is a light tan to biscuit-colour. The grain is usually straight, though irregular or cross-grained material can occur. The wood is hard, tough, durable even under water. It dries slowly, with a tendency to split and check; there is medium movement in service. The wood bends well with steam; there is a moderate to severe blunting effect on cutters; it polishes well, holds nails well, though only non-ferrous or galvanized nails should be used or the acidic wood will cause staining and corrosion. The wood is highly valued for a wide range of purposes including furniture, construction, boat building, cooperage, high class joinery etc[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
13
Title
Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Triska. Dr.
Publisher
Hamlyn
Year
1975
ISBN
0-600-33545-3
Description
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.
,
66
Title
From Agar to Zenery.
Publication
 
Author
Freethy. R.
Publisher
The Crowood Press
Year
1985
ISBN
0-946284-51-2
Description
Very readable, giving details on plant uses based on the authors own experiences.
,
1226
Title
World Woods in Colour
Publication
 
Author
Lincoln W.A.
Publisher
Stobart Davies Ltd., Hertford, England
Year
1986
ISBN
0-85442-028-2
Description
An extremely nice book with information about the wood of several hundred species of tree, including a very good photo of the grain.
].
The wood is an excellent fuel, burning well and giving off a lot of heat[
6
Title
Plants with a Purpose.
Publication
 
Author
Mabey. R.
Publisher
Fontana
Year
1979
ISBN
0-00-635555-2
Description
Details on some of the useful wild plants of Britain. Poor on pictures but otherwise very good.
] and makes a good quality charcoal[
61
Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
].

Propagation

Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.

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