Quercus pedunculata dulcis Bechst.
Quercus pinnatifida C.C.Gmel.
Quercus faginea Ten.
Quercus robur virgiliana Ten.
Quercus virgiliana (Ten.) Ten.
Eriodrys lanata Raf.
Quercus amplifolia Guss.
Quercus cupaniana Guss.
Quercus banja Endl.
Quercus collina Schleich. ex Endl.
Quercus sessiliflora laciniosa Boreau
Quercus laciniosa Boreau
Quercus microbalanos Boreau
Quercus sessilis barbulata Schur
Quercus budayana Haberle ex Heuff.
Quercus brachyphylla Kotschy
Quercus ambigua Kit. ex Rochel
Quercus brevifolia Kotschy ex A.DC.
Quercus menesiensis Kit.
Quercus pseudoaegilopsis G.Kirchn.
Quercus robur brachyphylla (Kotschy) A.DC.
Quercus robur tenorei A.DC.
Quercus sessiliflora montana Tod.
Quercus sessiliflora oblongata Tod.
Quercus sessiliflora oxyacanthifollia Martrin-Donos
Quercus undulata Kit.
Quercus macrostipulata Guss. ex Parl.
Quercus sessiliflora brachyphylla (Kotschy) Raulin
Quercus tommasinii Kotschy ex Vis.
Quercus oxycarpa Raddi
Quercus bellojocensis Gand.
Quercus chymophylla Gand.
Quercus budensis (Borbás) Borbás
Quercus sessiliflora suberoides Debeaux
Quercus brachyphylloides Vuk.
Quercus buccarana Vuk.
Quercus croatica Vuk.
Quercus erythrolepis (Vuk.) Vuk.
Quercus robur brachycarpa (Guss.) Borzí
Quercus robur macrolepis Borzí
Quercus robur pinnatifida (C.C.Gmel.) Borzí
Quercus susedana Vuk.
Quercus torulosa (Vuk.) Raddi
Quercus appenina amplifolia (Guss.) Nyman
Quercus sessiliflora cupaniana (Guss.) Nyman
Quercus sessiliflora virgiliana (Ten.) Nyman
Quercus microlepis Vuk.
Quercus stenolepis Vuk.
Quercus diversifrons Borbás
Quercus × streimii pachytricha Borbás
Quercus bacunensis Vuk.
Quercus brandisii (Vuk.) Vuk.
Quercus heterophylla Vuk.
Quercus lacinifolia Vuk.
Quercus pinnatifida dissecta Vuk.
Quercus pinnatifida parviglandis Vuk.
Quercus pusilla Vuk.
Quercus rufa Vuk.
Quercus schulzei (Vuk.) Vuk.
Quercus sectifolia Vuk.
Quercus sulcata Vuk.
Quercus torulosa granulata Vuk.
Quercus vukotinocicii Borbás
Quercus adjecta Gand.
Quercus admixta Gand.
Quercus amblyodes Gand.
Quercus amplissima Gand.
Quercus ampulleana Gand.
Quercus annexa Gand.
Quercus anxiosa Gand.
Quercus authemanii Gand.
Quercus bertolonii Gand.
Quercus brutiorum Gand.
Quercus calabrica Gand.
Quercus calcarea Gand.
Quercus catalaunica Gand.
Quercus chaberti Gand.
Quercus chymodon Gand.
Quercus chymophyllla Gand.
Quercus cistetorum Gand.
Quercus conobalana Gand.
Quercus crassiuscula Gand.
Quercus crenifolia Gand.
Quercus densifolia Gand.
Quercus derelicta Gand.
Quercus desiderabilis Gand.
Quercus desiderabillis Gand.
Quercus dimidiens Gand.
Quercus drumensis Gand.
Quercus elegantula Gand.
Quercus erythrochlamys Gand.
Quercus fallax Gand.
Quercus glareosa Gand.
Quercus halophila Gand.
Quercus helvetica Gand.
Quercus indifferens Gand.
Quercus inops Gand.
Quercus interruptella Gand.
Quercus isodes Gand.
Quercus jucunda Gand.
Quercus kovatsiana Gand.
Quercus leucoclada Gand.
Quercus ligustica Gand.
Quercus litiginosa Gand.
Quercus litigiosa Gand.
Quercus litorea Gand.
Quercus macrobalana Gand.
Quercus magistri Gand.
Quercus maritima Gand.
Quercus mediterranea Gand.
Quercus megalobos Gand.
Quercus megas Gand.
Quercus memorabilis Gand.
Quercus meridionalis Gand.
Quercus messanensis Gand.
Quercus minor Gand.
Quercus moravica Gand.
Quercus nebulosa Gand.
Quercus nitidula Gand.
Quercus oblongata Gand.
Quercus obtenta Gand.
Quercus obtusissima Gand.
Quercus obtusiuscula Gand.
Quercus oxybalanos Gand.
Quercus paillotii Gand.
Quercus partita Gand.
Quercus paucicrenata Gand.
Quercus phthiotica Gand.
Quercus platychlamys Gand.
Quercus polyloba Gand.
Quercus provincialis Gand.
Quercus pulchella Gand.
Quercus pungens Gand.
Quercus quadrans Gand.
Quercus quaesita Gand.
Quercus recondita Gand.
Quercus redux Gand.
Quercus romanica Gand.
Quercus sancta Gand.
Quercus sauteri Gand.
Quercus serbica Gand.
Quercus sessiliflora ambigua Nyman
Quercus sicula Gand.
Quercus slavica Gand.
Quercus stenocarpa Gand.
Quercus stenodes Gand.
Quercus subgrisea Gand.
Quercus susedana Gand.
Quercus taurinensis Gand.
Quercus tauscheri Gand.
Quercus tenuis Gand.
Quercus terminaloides Gand.
Quercus todaroi Gand.
Quercus tomoclada Gand.
Quercus tremens Gand.
Quercus trinacria Gand.
Quercus tyrolensis Gand.
Quercus uberta Gand.
Quercus undulatidens Gand.
Quercus valida Gand.
Quercus robur intermedia Berang.
Quercus aegilops Mill.
Quercus humilis Mill.
Quercus appenina Lam.
Quercus robur glomerata Lam.
Quercus robur lanuginosa Lam.
Quercus lanuginosa (Lam.) Thuill.
Quercus aspera Bosc
Quercus asperata Pers.
Quercus conglomerata Pers.
Quercus sessiliflora lanuginosa (Lam.) DC.
Quercus cerris Pall.
Quercus vallisclausae Gand.
Quercus vergens Gand.
Quercus vernixia Gand.
Quercus vinealis Gand.
Quercus ilicifolia Koord. & Valeton ex Seemen
Quercus brachyloba Jord.
Quercus pichleri Beck
Quercus dalechampii parvifolia Lojac.
Quercus tenorei (A.DC.) Borzí
Quercus robur sicula (Gand.) Fiori
Quercus × subspicata (A.Camus) C.Vicioso
Quercus dalmatica Radic
Quercus crispata Steven
Quercus cerris crispata (Steven) Hausskn.
Quercus anatolica O.Schwarz
Quercus subpyrenaica Villar
Quercus humilis subpyrenaica (Villar) Rivas Mart.
Quercus stenobalanos Gand.
Quercus alba pubescens (Willd.) Willd.
Quercus sessiliflora pubescens (Willd.) Loudon
Quercus brevipedunculata pubescens (Willd.) Cariot & St.-Lag.
Quercus robur pubescens (Willd.) Bonnier
Common Name: Downy Oak
Quercus pubescens is a deciduous tree that usually grows 15 - 20 metres tall but can sometimes reach 25 metres. The bole is usually crooked and uneven[
The tree is harvested from the wild for use as a source of materials and as a medicine, occasionally as a food. It is often encouraged in oak woodlands since it is one of the best hosts for various species of truffles.
All parts of the plant contain tannins. Whilst tannins are found in many foods, and have a range of medicinal uses. They are usually only present in low concentrations. In some foods made from oaks (particularly the seeds), the tannin content can be quite high unless the food is treated to reduce tannin content.
Tannins are only of low toxicity and, because of their bitter taste and astringency, are unlikely to be eaten in large quantities. However, if they are taken in excess, they can cause stomach pains; constipation followed by bloody diarrhoea: excessive thirst; and excessive urination[
Central and southern Europe - Germany to Spain, east to Ukraine, Bulgaria and western Turkey; W. Asia - northern Turkey
Woods and dry hills[
] in both siliceous and limestone soils[
]. Dry places, on calcareous, schistose, or argillaceous soils; at elevations up to 500 metres[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Semi-cultivated, Wild
Quercus pubescens is a very cold-hardy tree, tolerating temperatures down to around -25°c when dormant.
Prefers a sunny position, though young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[
]. Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[
]. The plant is fairly indifferent to soil pH, growing in lime-rich, well-drained soils in the north of its range and often found on acidic soils in the south[
]. Tolerates moderate exposure, surviving well but being somewhat stunted. Established plants are moderately drought tolerant[
The seed ripens in its first year.
Closely related to Quercus petraea[
Plants do not usually respond well to coppicing[
Seedlings soon develop a taproot and become intolerant of root disturbance, they should be planted into their permanent positions whilst young[
This species is one of the most frequent hosts of all the economically important truffle fungi[
This species hybridizes freely in the wild with other members of the genus, including Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus petraea and Quercus frainetto[
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[
Seed - cooked. A famine food, used when all else fails[
]. The elliptic seed is 15 - 35mm long[
The seed is usually cooked before eating, though it can also be eaten raw. It can be eaten whole, though it is more commonly dried, then ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread.
In some species, especially many of those classified as 'white oaks', the seeds are low in tannins and have a more or less sweet and agreeable flavour. The seed of most species, however, have a very bitter flavour, due especially to the presence of tannins. In these species there are various processes that can remove or at least reduce the amount of these bitter substances (although other water-soluble substances, including some minerals, will also be removed).
Tannins are water-soluble and therefore the easiest way to remove or reduce tannin levels is by soaking in water. A few different methods are listed:-
A traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter and allow the wet soil to gradually leach the tannins. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency and bitterness.
Another method was to wrap the seeds in a cloth bag and place them in a stream for several weeks.
Drying the seed and grinding it to a powder before soaking speeds up the process. The fastest method is to use hot water, by cooking the powder and changing the water several times until the cooking water is no longer bitter. Alternatively, you can use cold water (which is reported to produce the best quality flour). In this case, you soak the powdered seed in cold water for 12 - 24 hours then discard the water. Repeat this process for a number of times until the soak water is no longer bitter.
The roasted seed of many Quercus species has been used as a coffee substitute.
Quercus (oak) species are used in the traditional medicine of many cultures, being valued especially for their tannins. Various parts of the plant can be used, most frequently it is the leaves, bark, seeds, seed cups or the galls that are produced as a result of insect damage. A decoction or infusion is astringent, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, styptic and haemostatic. It is taken internally to treat conditions such as acute diarrhea, dysentery and haemorrhages. Externally, it is used as a mouthwash to treat toothache or gum problems and is applied topically as a wash on cuts, burns, various skin problems, haemorrhoids and oral, genital and anal mucosa inflammation[
]. Extracts of the plant can be added to ointments and used for the healing of cuts[
This species is extensively used for the afforestation of Austrian karst[
Considering the remarkable increase of tree ring size experienced by the downy oak in response to the augmentation of atmospheric CO2 during the last century, its increased use in Southern European afforestations could be a very effective tool in order to combat the greenhouse effect[
The leaves of most species in this genus are more or less rich in tannins. A mulch of the partially decayed leaves can be placed around vulnerable plants in order to repel slugs, snails, grubs etc, and these will in time break down to add humus and nutrients to the soil. Fresh leaves should be used with caution, however, since as these decay they utilize some of the nitrogen in the soil and thus can inhibit plant growth[
Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff and is also used by many cultures to make ink[
The bark of oak trees is also usually rich in tannins and can be used as a dyestuff and for waterproofing rope[
The wood is hard, durable even under water, not very elastic[
]. Of good quality, but usually not available in large dimensions. Due to its irregular fibre distribution and the crookedness of the trunks, the wood is scarcely considered as industrial lumber. In the past, it was largely employed for railway sleepers, while nowadays it is occasionally used for carpentry, boat-building, furniture or packaging[
The wood is a good fuel - burning well and giving off a lot of heat. It makes a good charcoak[
Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[
]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.