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Useful Temperate Plants

Quercus pubescens

Willd.

Fagaceae

+ Synonyms

Eriodrys lanata Raf.

Quercus × streimii pachytricha Borbás

Quercus × subspicata (A.Camus) C.Vicioso

Quercus adjecta Gand.

Quercus admixta Gand.

Quercus aegilops Mill.

Quercus alba pubescens (Willd.) Willd.

Quercus ambigua Kit. ex Rochel

Quercus amblyodes Gand.

Quercus amplifolia Guss.

Quercus amplissima Gand.

Quercus ampulleana Gand.

Quercus anatolica O.Schwarz

Quercus annexa Gand.

Quercus anxiosa Gand.

Quercus appenina Lam.

Quercus appenina amplifolia (Guss.) Nyman

Quercus aspera Bosc

Quercus asperata Pers.

Quercus authemanii Gand.

Quercus bacunensis Vuk.

Quercus banja Endl.

Quercus bellojocensis Gand.

Quercus bertolonii Gand.

Quercus brachyloba Jord.

Quercus brachyphylla Kotschy

Quercus brachyphylloides Vuk.

Quercus brandisii (Vuk.) Vuk.

Quercus brevifolia Kotschy ex A.DC.

Quercus brevipedunculata pubescens (Willd.) Cariot & St.-Lag.

Quercus brutiorum Gand.

Quercus buccarana Vuk.

Quercus budayana Haberle ex Heuff.

Quercus budensis (Borbás) Borbás

Quercus calabrica Gand.

Quercus calcarea Gand.

Quercus catalaunica Gand.

Quercus cerris Pall.

Quercus cerris crispata (Steven) Hausskn.

Quercus chaberti Gand.

Quercus chymodon Gand.

Quercus chymophylla Gand.

Quercus chymophyllla Gand.

Quercus cistetorum Gand.

Quercus collina Schleich. ex Endl.

Quercus conglomerata Pers.

Quercus conobalana Gand.

Quercus crassiuscula Gand.

Quercus crenifolia Gand.

Quercus crispata Steven

Quercus croatica Vuk.

Quercus cupaniana Guss.

Quercus dalechampii parvifolia Lojac.

Quercus dalmatica Radic

Quercus densifolia Gand.

Quercus derelicta Gand.

Quercus desiderabilis Gand.

Quercus desiderabillis Gand.

Quercus dimidiens Gand.

Quercus diversifrons Borbás

Quercus drumensis Gand.

Quercus elegantula Gand.

Quercus erythrochlamys Gand.

Quercus erythrolepis (Vuk.) Vuk.

Quercus faginea Ten.

Quercus fallax Gand.

Quercus glareosa Gand.

Quercus halophila Gand.

Quercus helvetica Gand.

Quercus heterophylla Vuk.

Quercus humilis Mill.

Quercus humilis subpyrenaica (Villar) Rivas Mart.

Quercus ilicifolia Koord. & Valeton ex Seemen

Quercus indifferens Gand.

Quercus inops Gand.

Quercus interruptella Gand.

Quercus isodes Gand.

Quercus jucunda Gand.

Quercus kovatsiana Gand.

Quercus lacinifolia Vuk.

Quercus laciniosa Boreau

Quercus lanuginosa (Lam.) Thuill.

Quercus leucoclada Gand.

Quercus ligustica Gand.

Quercus litiginosa Gand.

Quercus litigiosa Gand.

Quercus litorea Gand.

Quercus macrobalana Gand.

Quercus macrostipulata Guss. ex Parl.

Quercus magistri Gand.

Quercus maritima Gand.

Quercus mediterranea Gand.

Quercus megalobos Gand.

Quercus megas Gand.

Quercus memorabilis Gand.

Quercus menesiensis Kit.

Quercus meridionalis Gand.

Quercus messanensis Gand.

Quercus microbalanos Boreau

Quercus microlepis Vuk.

Quercus minor Gand.

Quercus moravica Gand.

Quercus nebulosa Gand.

Quercus nitidula Gand.

Quercus oblongata Gand.

Quercus obtenta Gand.

Quercus obtusissima Gand.

Quercus obtusiuscula Gand.

Quercus oxybalanos Gand.

Quercus oxycarpa Raddi

Quercus paillotii Gand.

Quercus partita Gand.

Quercus paucicrenata Gand.

Quercus pedunculata dulcis Bechst.

Quercus phthiotica Gand.

Quercus pichleri Beck

Quercus pinnatifida C.C.Gmel.

Quercus pinnatifida dissecta Vuk.

Quercus pinnatifida parviglandis Vuk.

Quercus platychlamys Gand.

Quercus polyloba Gand.

Quercus provincialis Gand.

Quercus pseudoaegilopsis G.Kirchn.

Quercus pulchella Gand.

Quercus pungens Gand.

Quercus pusilla Vuk.

Quercus quadrans Gand.

Quercus quaesita Gand.

Quercus recondita Gand.

Quercus redux Gand.

Quercus robur brachycarpa (Guss.) Borzí

Quercus robur brachyphylla (Kotschy) A.DC.

Quercus robur glomerata Lam.

Quercus robur intermedia Berang.

Quercus robur lanuginosa Lam.

Quercus robur macrolepis Borzí

Quercus robur pinnatifida (C.C.Gmel.) Borzí

Quercus robur pubescens (Willd.) Bonnier

Quercus robur sicula (Gand.) Fiori

Quercus robur tenorei A.DC.

Quercus robur virgiliana Ten.

Quercus romanica Gand.

Quercus rufa Vuk.

Quercus sancta Gand.

Quercus sauteri Gand.

Quercus schulzei (Vuk.) Vuk.

Quercus sectifolia Vuk.

Quercus serbica Gand.

Quercus sessiliflora ambigua Nyman

Quercus sessiliflora brachyphylla (Kotschy) Raulin

Quercus sessiliflora cupaniana (Guss.) Nyman

Quercus sessiliflora laciniosa Boreau

Quercus sessiliflora lanuginosa (Lam.) DC.

Quercus sessiliflora montana Tod.

Quercus sessiliflora oblongata Tod.

Quercus sessiliflora oxyacanthifollia Martrin-Donos

Quercus sessiliflora pubescens (Willd.) Loudon

Quercus sessiliflora suberoides Debeaux

Quercus sessiliflora virgiliana (Ten.) Nyman

Quercus sessilis barbulata Schur

Quercus sicula Gand.

Quercus slavica Gand.

Quercus stenobalanos Gand.

Quercus stenocarpa Gand.

Quercus stenodes Gand.

Quercus stenolepis Vuk.

Quercus subgrisea Gand.

Quercus subpyrenaica Villar

Quercus sulcata Vuk.

Quercus susedana Gand.

Quercus susedana Vuk.

Quercus taurinensis Gand.

Quercus tauscheri Gand.

Quercus tenorei (A.DC.) Borzí

Quercus tenuis Gand.

Quercus terminaloides Gand.

Quercus todaroi Gand.

Quercus tommasinii Kotschy ex Vis.

Quercus tomoclada Gand.

Quercus torulosa (Vuk.) Raddi

Quercus torulosa granulata Vuk.

Quercus tremens Gand.

Quercus trinacria Gand.

Quercus tyrolensis Gand.

Quercus uberta Gand.

Quercus undulata Kit.

Quercus undulatidens Gand.

Quercus valida Gand.

Quercus vallisclausae Gand.

Quercus vergens Gand.

Quercus vernixia Gand.

Quercus vinealis Gand.

Quercus virgiliana (Ten.) Ten.

Quercus vukotinocicii Borbás

Common Name: Downy Oak

No Image.

General Information

Quercus pubescens is a deciduous tree that usually grows 15 - 20 metres tall but can sometimes reach 25 metres. The bole is usually crooked and uneven[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
The tree is harvested from the wild for use as a source of materials and as a medicine, occasionally as a food. It is often encouraged in oak woodlands since it is one of the best hosts for various species of truffles.

Known Hazards

All parts of the plant contain tannins. Whilst tannins are found in many foods, and have a range of medicinal uses. They are usually only present in low concentrations. In some foods made from oaks (particularly the seeds), the tannin content can be quite high unless the food is treated to reduce tannin content.
Tannins are only of low toxicity and, because of their bitter taste and astringency, are unlikely to be eaten in large quantities. However, if they are taken in excess, they can cause stomach pains; constipation followed by bloody diarrhoea: excessive thirst; and excessive urination[
293
Title
Poisonous Plants of North Carolina
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/poison.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent concise but comprehensive guide to toxic plants that grow in N. Carolina. It lists even those plants that are of very low toxicity, including several well-known food plants such as carrots and potatoes.
].

Botanical References

11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
50
Title
Flora Europaea
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Year
1964
ISBN
-
Description
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for Europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
,
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Range

Central and southern Europe - Germany to Spain, east to Ukraine, Bulgaria and western Turkey; W. Asia - northern Turkey

Habitat

Woods and dry hills[
100
Title
Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Polunin. O.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1969
ISBN
0192176218
Description
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
] in both siliceous and limestone soils[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. Dry places, on calcareous, schistose, or argillaceous soils; at elevations up to 500 metres[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitDeciduous Tree
Height12.00 m
PollinatorsWind
Cultivation StatusSemi-cultivated, Wild

Cultivation Details

Quercus pubescens is a very cold-hardy tree, tolerating temperatures down to around -25°c when dormant.
Prefers a sunny position, though young plants tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Prefers a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. The plant is fairly indifferent to soil pH, growing in lime-rich, well-drained soils in the north of its range and often found on acidic soils in the south[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
]. Tolerates moderate exposure, surviving well but being somewhat stunted. Established plants are moderately drought tolerant[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
The seed ripens in its first year.
Closely related to Quercus petraea[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
].
Plants do not usually respond well to coppicing[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
Seedlings soon develop a taproot and become intolerant of root disturbance, they should be planted into their permanent positions whilst young[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
].
This species is one of the most frequent hosts of all the economically important truffle fungi[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
This species hybridizes freely in the wild with other members of the genus, including Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus petraea and Quercus frainetto[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

Edible Uses

Seed - cooked. A famine food, used when all else fails[
177
Title
Plants for Human Consumption.
Publication
 
Author
Kunkel. G.
Publisher
Koeltz Scientific Books
Year
1984
ISBN
3874292169
Description
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
]. The elliptic seed is 15 - 35mm long[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
The seed is usually cooked before eating, though it can also be eaten raw. It can be eaten whole, though it is more commonly dried, then ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread.
In some species, especially many of those classified as 'white oaks', the seeds are low in tannins and have a more or less sweet and agreeable flavour. The seed of most species, however, have a very bitter flavour, due especially to the presence of tannins. In these species there are various processes that can remove or at least reduce the amount of these bitter substances (although other water-soluble substances, including some minerals, will also be removed).
Tannins are water-soluble and therefore the easiest way to remove or reduce tannin levels is by soaking in water. A few different methods are listed:-
A traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter and allow the wet soil to gradually leach the tannins. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency and bitterness.
Another method was to wrap the seeds in a cloth bag and place them in a stream for several weeks.
Drying the seed and grinding it to a powder before soaking speeds up the process. The fastest method is to use hot water, by cooking the powder and changing the water several times until the cooking water is no longer bitter. Alternatively, you can use cold water (which is reported to produce the best quality flour). In this case, you soak the powdered seed in cold water for 12 - 24 hours then discard the water. Repeat this process for a number of times until the soak water is no longer bitter.

The roasted seed of many Quercus species has been used as a coffee substitute.

Medicinal

Quercus (oak) species are used in the traditional medicine of many cultures, being valued especially for their tannins. Various parts of the plant can be used, most frequently it is the leaves, bark, seeds, seed cups or the galls that are produced as a result of insect damage. A decoction or infusion is astringent, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, styptic and haemostatic. It is taken internally to treat conditions such as acute diarrhea, dysentery and haemorrhages. Externally, it is used as a mouthwash to treat toothache or gum problems and is applied topically as a wash on cuts, burns, various skin problems, haemorrhoids and oral, genital and anal mucosa inflammation[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
]. Extracts of the plant can be added to ointments and used for the healing of cuts[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
1231
Title
Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Some Quercus Species Growing in Turkey
Publication
FABAD J. Pharm. Sci., 32, 127-130, 2007
Author
Didem Söhretoğlu; Melike Ekizoğlu; Ekrem Kiliç; M. Koray Sak
Publisher
 
Year
2007
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

Agroforestry Uses:

This species is extensively used for the afforestation of Austrian karst[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].
Considering the remarkable increase of tree ring size experienced by the downy oak in response to the augmentation of atmospheric CO2 during the last century, its increased use in Southern European afforestations could be a very effective tool in order to combat the greenhouse effect[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].

Other Uses

The leaves of most species in this genus are more or less rich in tannins. A mulch of the partially decayed leaves can be placed around vulnerable plants in order to repel slugs, snails, grubs etc, and these will in time break down to add humus and nutrients to the soil. Fresh leaves should be used with caution, however, since as these decay they utilize some of the nitrogen in the soil and thus can inhibit plant growth[
20
Title
Companion Planting for Successful Gardening.
Publication
 
Author
Riotte. L.
Publisher
Garden Way, Vermont, USA.
Year
1978
ISBN
0-88266-064-0
Description
Fairly good.
,
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff and is also used by many cultures to make ink[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
331
Title
Flora of Guatemala
Publication
 
Author
Standley P.C. & J. A. Steyermark
Website
http://www.archive.org/
Publisher
 
Year
1946 - 1976
ISBN
 
Description
A superb reference, though somewhat dated. Gives lots of plant uses as well as information on plant habit and habitat. The entire flora (13 volumes) can now be downloaded from http://www.archive.org/
].
The bark of oak trees is also usually rich in tannins and can be used as a dyestuff and for waterproofing rope[
331
Title
Flora of Guatemala
Publication
 
Author
Standley P.C. & J. A. Steyermark
Website
http://www.archive.org/
Publisher
 
Year
1946 - 1976
ISBN
 
Description
A superb reference, though somewhat dated. Gives lots of plant uses as well as information on plant habit and habitat. The entire flora (13 volumes) can now be downloaded from http://www.archive.org/
,
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

The wood is hard, durable even under water, not very elastic[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
61
Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
]. Of good quality, but usually not available in large dimensions. Due to its irregular fibre distribution and the crookedness of the trunks, the wood is scarcely considered as industrial lumber. In the past, it was largely employed for railway sleepers, while nowadays it is occasionally used for carpentry, boat-building, furniture or packaging[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
61
Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
The wood is a good fuel - burning well and giving off a lot of heat. It makes a good charcoak[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].

Propagation

Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.

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