Quercus aegilops brantii (Lindl.) A.Camus
Quercus baneica Djav.-Khoie
Quercus oophora Kotschy
Quercus persica belangeri A.DC.
Quercus persica longicupulata Djav.-Khoie
Quercus persica ovoidea Djav.-Khoie
Quercus persica retrosquamata Djav.-Khoie
Quercus saii Djav.-Khoie
Quercus squamulosa Djav.-Khoie
Quercus brantii is a deciduous shrub or a tree with a rounded crown; it can grow up to 15 metres tall, The short, stout bole can be 80cm in diameter[
The tree is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of materials. It is cultivated for its edible fruits in northern Kurdistan, and is also grown as an ornamental within its native range[
]. This is a hardy oak with beautiful foliage and crown on a stout bole. Indeed, it is a valuable tree which deserves attention in landscaping of arid and semi-arid lands[
All parts of the plant contain tannins. Whilst tannins are found in many foods, and have a range of medicinal uses. They are usually only present in low concentrations. In some foods made from oaks (particularly the seeds), the tannin content can be quite high unless the food is treated to reduce tannin content.
Tannins are only of low toxicity and, because of their bitter taste and astringency, are unlikely to be eaten in large quantities. However, if they are taken in excess, they can cause stomach pains; constipation followed by bloody diarrhoea: excessive thirst; and excessive urination[
W. Asia - eastern Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Caucasus
Limestone slopes; at elevations from 350 - 1,700 metres[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Ornamental, Wild
Quercus brantii is a plant of arid and semi-arid environments, and is able to withstand moderate amounts of frost, surviving temperatures falling to around -5°c or perhaps lower when dormant, especially if the summers are hot.
Quercus species generally grow well in a sunny position, though young plants usually tolerate reasonable levels of side shade[
]. They usually prefer a good deep fertile loam which can be on the stiff side[
]. They are also often tolerant of moderate exposure, surviving well but being somewhat stunted[
]. Established plants of this species are highly drought tolerant[
Seedlings soon develop a taproot and become intolerant of root disturbance, they should be planted into their permanent positions whilst young[
Most Quercus species hybridize freely with other members of the genus[
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[
Seed - raw or cooked[
]. The seed is 30 - 50mm long and 12 - 22mm wide[
The seed is usually cooked before eating, though it can also be eaten raw. It can be eaten whole, though it is more commonly dried, then ground into a powder and used as a thickening in stews etc or mixed with cereals for making bread.
In some species, especially many of those classified as 'white oaks', the seeds are low in tannins and have a more or less sweet and agreeable flavour. The seed of most species, however, have a very bitter flavour, due especially to the presence of tannins. In these species there are various processes that can remove or at least reduce the amount of these bitter substances (although other water-soluble substances, including some minerals, will also be removed).
Tannins are water-soluble and therefore the easiest way to remove or reduce tannin levels is by soaking in water. A few different methods are listed:-
A traditional method of preparing the seed was to bury it in boggy ground overwinter and allow the wet soil to gradually leach the tannins. The germinating seed was dug up in the spring when it would have lost most of its astringency and bitterness.
Another method was to wrap the seeds in a cloth bag and place them in a stream for several weeks.
Drying the seed and grinding it to a powder before soaking speeds up the process. The fastest method is to use hot water, by cooking the powder and changing the water several times until the cooking water is no longer bitter. Alternatively, you can use cold water (which is reported to produce the best quality flour). In this case, you soak the powdered seed in cold water for 12 - 24 hours then discard the water. Repeat this process for a number of times until the soak water is no longer bitter.
The roasted seed is used as a coffee substitute[
The seeds are used in traditional medicine[
]. No further details are given[
Quercus (oak) species are used in the traditional medicine of many cultures, being valued especially for their tannins. Various parts of the plant can be used, most frequently it is the leaves, bark, seeds, seed cups or the galls that are produced as a result of insect damage. A decoction or infusion is astringent, antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic, styptic and haemostatic. It is taken internally to treat conditions such as acute diarrhea, dysentery and haemorrhages. Externally, it is used as a mouthwash to treat toothache or gum problems and is applied topically as a wash on cuts, burns, various skin problems, haemorrhoids and oral, genital and anal mucosa inflammation[
]. Extracts of the plant can be added to ointments and used for the healing of cuts[
The leaves of most species in this genus are more or less rich in tannins. A mulch of the partially decayed leaves can be placed around vulnerable plants in order to repel slugs, snails, grubs etc, and these will in time break down to add humus and nutrients to the soil. Fresh leaves should be used with caution, however, since as these decay they utilize some of the nitrogen in the soil and thus can inhibit plant growth[
Oak galls are excrescences that are sometimes produced in great numbers on the tree and are caused by the activity of the larvae of different insects. The insects live inside these galls, obtaining their nutrient therein. When the insect pupates and leaves, the gall can be used as a rich source of tannin, that can also be used as a dyestuff and is also used by many cultures to make ink[
The bark of oak trees is also usually rich in tannins and can be used as a dyestuff and for waterproofing rope[
As a source of wood and lumber the genus Quercus is one of the most important of all groups of trees. We have no specific information for this species, but in general the timber is noted for its strength, durability, and beauty, and is used everywhere for innumerable purposes, ranging from fuel to railroad ties, construction of buildings and ships, interior trim, flooring, and all grades of furniture. The woods of different species vary as to their physical qualities; some of them are very hard and tough, others are lighter in weight, softer, and less tough[
The wood is a favoured fuel - burning well and giving off a lot of heat. It is also used for making a good quality charcoal[
Seed - it quickly loses viability if it is allowed to dry out. It can be stored moist and cool overwinter but is best sown as soon as it is ripe in an outdoor seed bed, though it must be protected from mice, squirrels etc. Small quantities of seed can be sown in deep pots in a cold frame. Plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible, in fact seed sown in situ will produce the best trees[
]. Trees should not be left in a nursery bed for more than 2 growing seasons without being moved or they will transplant very badly.