Pyrus elaeagnifolia kotschyana
Pyrus elaeagnifolia kotschyana is best treated as a distinct species (as Pyrus kotschyana Boiss. ex Decne.) according to Zübeyde Uğurlu Aydin & Ali Aslan Dönmez; 'Taxonomic and nomenclatural contributions to Pyrus L. (Rosaceae) from Turkey'; Turk J Bot (2015) 39: 841-849.
In spite of their wide geographic distribution, the various species in the genus Pyrus are intercrossable without major incompatibility barriers. Also, the high morphological diversity and the lack of distinguishing characters among the species have been reported. Therefore, the classification of species in this genus is problematic and often confusing, giving different populations designated as different species by some authors. It is likely that, when the genus is reviewed, there will be several changes to the nomenclature[
Pyrus kotschyana Boiss. ex Decne.
Pyrus taochia Woronow
Pyrus elaeagnifolia kotschyana is a deciduous tree, rarely with spines, that can grow 6 - 12 metres tall.
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food.
Although no specific information has been seen for this plant, the seed of many species in the family Rosaceae are likely to contain cyanogenic glycosides. When injested, these compounds break down in the digestive tract to release cyanide. Used in small quantities in both traditional and conventional medicine, this exceedingly poisonous compound has been shown to stimulate respiration, improve digestion, and promote a sense of well-being[
]. It is also claimed by some to be of benefit in the treatment of cancer - though this claim has been largely refuted.
In larger concentrations, however, cyanide can cause gasping, weakness, excitement, pupil dilation, spasms, convulsions, coma and respiratory failure leading to death[
The levels of toxin can be detected by the level of bitterness:- sweet almonds, for example, contain only very low levels of it and are safe to eat in quantity, whilst bitter almonds (which are used as a flavouring in foods such as marzipan) contain much higher levels and should only be eaten in very small quantities. Great caution should be employed if the taste is moderately to very bitter[
W. Asia - Turkey
Rocky limestone slopes and forests; at elevations from 1,000 - 1,850 metres[
Pyrus is very cold-hardy, tolerating temperatures down to at least -15°c when dormant[
Prefers a good well-drained loam in full sun[
]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Tolerates light shade but does not fruit so well in such a position. Tolerates atmospheric pollution, excessive moisture and a range of soil types if they are moderately fertile[
]. Established plants are drought tolerant[
This sub-species differs from Pyrus eleagrifolia in having usually thornless branches[
Closely related to Pyrus georgica[
Fruit - raw or cooked[
]. The flesh is rather tough and gritty, but has a reasonable flavour when it is fully ripe[
]. The pyriform fruits are yellow-green in colour, sometimes reddening, up to 20mm in diameter and 25mm long[
Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn, it will then usually germinate in mid to late winter. Stored seed requires 8 - 10 weeks cold stratification at 1°c and should be sown as early in the year as possible[
]. Temperatures over 15 - 20°c induce a secondary dormancy in the seed[
]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse for their first year. Plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year.