A number of varieties have been described and were recognized in the Flora of China, Vol. 4: 83-84 (1999)[
], but of these only var. maki is still recognized as per Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden. (2010). Podocarpus macrophyllus var. chingii is now recognized as the distinct species Podocarpus chingianus. The only difference which seems more or less consistent between Podocarpus macrophyllus var macrophyllus and var maki is the leaf width; other measurements, while statistically perhaps significant (not tested), show much overlapping. The receptacles of living Podocarpus macrophyllus var maki seen in Taiwan were ripening to red, not purple; those of var macrophyllus may turn to purple[
Juniperus chinensis Roxb.
Margbensonia chinensis (Wall. ex Benn.) A.V.Bobrov & Melikyan
Margbensonia macrophylla (Thunb.) A.V.Bobrov & Melikyan
Margbensonia maki (Siebold & Zucc.) A.V.Bobrov & Melikyan
Margbensonia sweetii (C.Presl) A.V.Bobrov & Melikyan
Nageia appressa (Maxim.) Kuntze.
Nageia chinensis (Wall. ex Benn.) Kuntze,.
Nageia corrugata (Gordon) Kuntze.
Nageia flagelliformis (Carrière) Kuntze.
Nageia japonica (Siebold ex Endl.) Kuntze
Nageia macrophylla (Thunb.) F.Muell.
Podocarpus appressus Maxim.
Podocarpus canaliculatus Carrière
Podocarpus chinensis Wall. ex Benn.
Podocarpus corrugates Gordon
Podocarpus flagelliformis Carrière
Podocarpus japonicus Siebold ex Endl.
Podocarpus lanceolata Gordon
Podocarpus longifolia Gordon
Podocarpus maki (Siebold & Zucc.) Pickering
Podocarpus makoyi Blume
Podocarpus miquelia Parl.
Podocarpus sweetii C.Presl
Podocarpus verticillatus Lindl.
Taxus chinensis Roxb.
Taxus macrophylla Thunb.
Taxus makoya Forbes
Common Name: Kusamaki
Podocarpus macrophyllus is an evergreen tree with a narrow, conical crown; it can grow 5 - 15 metres tall, though sometimes it remains as a large shrub[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of materials. It is often grown as an ornamental, where it can be used as a hedge, and is also grown in a pot as a house plant[
Podocarpus macrophyllus, with its constituent varieties, is very widespread and despite some decline does not qualify for any threatened category. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
Superficially similar to Taxus species, but this plant is definitely not poisonous[
E. Asia - southern China, southern Japan, northern Myanmar.
Mountain of central and southern Japan[
]. Forests, open thickets and roadsides; at elevations from near sea level to 1,000 metres[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Ornamental, Wild
Based on data from 52 collection localities, Podocarpus macrophyllus grows in a region where the mean annual temperature is 18.4°c, with an average minimum in the coldest month of 7.1°c, and a mean annual precipitation of 2,180mm. This is the most northernmost of all species of Podocarpus, tolerating winter temperatures down to between -17.7°c and -12.2°c[
]. Another report says that the plant is very hardy, tolerating winter temperatures falling to about -25°c for short periods[
]. The trees tend to grow poorly, however, in regions with cool summers, preferring areas where the summers are hot and humid[
Succeeds in full sun and in light shade[
]. Prefers a rich, moist but well-drained, non-alkaline soil[
Podocarpus macrophyllus (especially var. maki) is a slow-growing tree that is widely planted as an ornamental and amenity tree, a number of cultivars have been developed. In Japan, this species is planted for hedges; var. maki is a popular pot plant and is occasionally seen as bonsai[
Tolerant of trimming[
The foliage is pleasantly fragrant when bruised[
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[
This species is normally dioecious, though monoecious forms are sometimes found[
]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if fruit and seed is required.
Fruit - raw or cooked in pies, cakes etc[
]. The fruit is 12 - 15mm long[
]. The 'fruit' is actually a succulent, swollen, fruit-like stalk[
The stem bark is used in the treatment of worms (especially ringworm) and blood disorders[
A decoction of the fruit is tonic for the heart, kidneys, lungs and stomach[
Plants are used for hedging in N. America[
]. The erect cultivar 'Maki' is commonly used[
The wood is used in making furniture, utensils, paper, and farm implements[
The seed can be sown at any time of the year in a sandy soil in a warm greenhouse, though it is probably best sown as soon as it is ripe[
]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Cuttings of half-ripe terminal shoots, 5 - 10cm long, mid summer in a frame[