Pinus sylvestris uncinata (Ramond ex DC.) Loudon
Pinus mughus uncinata (Ramond ex DC.) K.Koch
Pinus montana uncinata (Ramond ex DC.) Heer
Pinus pumilio uncinata (Ramond ex DC.) Carrière
Pinus montana proles uncinata (Ramond ex DC.) Rouy
Pinus mugo uncinata (Ramond ex DC.) Fiori
Pinus sanguinea Lapeyr.
Pinus rotundata Link
Pinus sylvestris palustris Hagenb.
Pinus pumilio rotundata (Link) Tem.
Pinus sylvestris rotundata (Link) Link
Pinus pumilio torfacea Babey
Pinus montana hausmannii Christ
Pinus pumilio rostrata (Antoine) Carrière
Pinus mugo rostrata (Antoine) Hoopes
Pinus mugo rotundata (Link) Hoopes
Pinus montana rostrata (Antoine) Willk.
Pinus montana rotundata (Link) Willk.
Pinus montana hausmannii (Christ) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.
Pinus montana pendula (Hartig ex Willk.) Schelle
Pinus montana humilior Rouy in G.Rouy & J.Foucaud
Pinus mugo palustris (Hagenb.) Breistr.
Pinus uliginosa G.E.Neumann
Pinus mughus uliginosa (G.E.Neumann) K.Koch
Pinus pumilio uliginosa (G.E.Neumann) Ratzeb.
Pinus sylvestris uliginosa (G.E.Neumann) Link
Pinus montana uliginosa (G.E.Neumann) Heer
Pinus mugo uliginosa (G.E.Neumann) O.Schwarz
Pinus mugho Poir.
Pinus humilis Link
Pinus obliqua Saut.
Pinus pumilio mugho (Poir.) Loudon
Pinus mughus obliqua (Saut.) C.F.M.Elsner
Pinus montana mugho (Poir.) Spach
Pinus sylvestris humilis (Link) Link
Pinus mughus erecta Grab.
Pinus montana humilis (Link) Heer
Pinus montana pseudopumilio (Willk.) Willk.
Pinus pseudopumilio (Willk.) Beck
Pinus mugo pseudopumilio (Willk.) Domin
Pinus rotundata pseudopumilio (Willk.) H.Neumayer
Pinus mugo mughoides (Willk.) K.I.Chr.
Common Name: Mountain Pine
Pinus uncinata is an evergreen tree with an an ovoid-conic crown; it can grow from 12 - 24 metres tall. The straight, cylindrical bole can be 50 - 100cm in diameter[
The tree yields an excellent timber and is often used in reforestation projects in mountainous regions of Europe[
Pinus uncinata is widespread and unlike Pinus mugo subsp. rotundata, with which it has been confused, it is not extensively threatened by drainage and afforestation of its forest habitat wih other tree species. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[
Central and southern Europe - Germany, France, Spain, ?Poland, Czech Republic, Switzerland, Italy. Austria
Wet moors in mountainous areas and on moist slopes up to the tree line[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
Pinus uncinata is a very cold-hardy plant, able to tolerate temperatures down to around -25°c when fully dormant[
Pine species in general require a sunny position if they are to grow well and, whilst the different species have their own soil preferences, most will thrive in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[
]. This species succeeds in poor soils, which can be dry or wet[
]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[
]. Established plants tolerate drought[
]. Fairly wind-resistant[
The seed cones are 25 - 60mm long and 30 - 50cm wide, The cones mature in the autumn of their second growing season, opening on the tree either then or in the following spring[
A fairly slow-growing plant[
Mountain Pine is not commercially important; its main value is ecological and it has some significance as an ornamental tree[
Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[
]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[
Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[
The seeds of all Pinus species are more or less edible, and some are of good size and make very tasty and nutritious foods, often eaten in quantitiy. Others can be less desireable, either having a strongly resinous flavour, being bitter or, more commonly, rather too small and fiddly to make it very worthwhle even trying to eat them,
We have no specific information of the desireability of this species, though they are rather small (the size given includes the shell)[
The black seeds are 3 - 4mm long[
A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[
Oil of turpentine, obtained from the oleo-resin of all pine trees, is antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent, diuretic, rubefacient, stimulant and vermifuge[
]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[
]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[
Applied externally in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers, it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc[
The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[
A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[
Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[
]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[
]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[
Oil of Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[
] and is separated by distillation[
]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for thinning and dissolving varnish and paints, a shoe polish, medicinal etc[
Rosin is also obtained by distillation of pine resin. This is used in paper glue and soap manufacturing, as a constituent of varnishes and paints, and for coating the bows of stringed musical instruments such as violins[
Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc[
The wood is suitable for light construction[
]. Some of the wood is excellent for special uses like turnery, woodware and musical instruments due to its relative density and hardness[
The wood is used as fuel[
It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[
]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[
]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[
]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[
]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[
]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[
Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[