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Common Name: Japanese Black Pine
Pinus thunbergii is a Evergreen Tree up to 15.00 metres tall.
It has edible, medicinal and miscellaneous uses.
The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people[
E. Asia - Japan.
Sand dunes by the coast in E. Japan.
Thrives in a light well-drained sandy or gravelly loam[
]. Dislikes poorly drained moorland soils[
]. Established plants tolerate drought[
] and maritime exposure[
The Japanese black pine bears cones whilst still young and produces cones very freely in Britain[
]. The trees thrive in Britain but do not grow very large[
] and are probably not going to be long-lived[
]. Young trees grow about 50cm per year but this soon tails off and older trees average less than 30cm per year[
Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[
]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[
]. This species hybridizes in the wild with P. densiflora[
Leaf secretions inhibit the germination of seeds, thereby reducing the amount of plants that can grow under the trees[
Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[
]. There are no more details but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used as a thickener in soups etc or added to cereals when making bread.
A vanillin flavouring is obtained as a by-product of other resins that are released from the pulpwood[
The turpentine obtained from the resin of all pine trees is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge[
]. It is a valuable remedy used internally in the treatment of kidney and bladder complaints and is used both internally and as a rub and steam bath in the treatment of rheumatic affections[
]. It is also very beneficial to the respiratory system and so is useful in treating diseases of the mucous membranes and respiratory complaints such as coughs, colds, influenza and TB[
]. Externally it is a very beneficial treatment for a variety of skin complaints, wounds, sores, burns, boils etc and is used in the form of liniment plasters, poultices, herbal steam baths and inhalers[
Tolerant of salt spray, this species makes a good shelterbelt for exposed maritime positions[
]. Trees were 9 metres tall after 30 years in a very exposed position at Rosewarne in N. Cornwall[
Planted to stabilize sand dunes by the coast[
A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles[
The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat[
Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile[
]. The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood[
]. In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields[
]. Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin[
] and is separated by distillation[
]. Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc[
]. Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc[
]. Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc.
It is best to sow the seed in individual pots in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe if this is possible otherwise in late winter. A short stratification of 6 weeks at 4°c can improve the germination of stored seed[
]. Plant seedlings out into their permanent positions as soon as possible and protect them for their first winter or two[
]. Plants have a very sparse root system and the sooner they are planted into their permanent positions the better they will grow[
]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm[
]. We actually plant them out when they are about 5 - 10cm tall. So long as they are given a very good weed-excluding mulch they establish very well[
]. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[
Cuttings. This method only works when taken from very young trees less than 10 years old. Use single leaf fascicles with the base of the short shoot. Disbudding the shoots some weeks before taking the cuttings can help. Cuttings are normally slow to grow away[