Betula antarctica G.Forst.
Calusparassus betuloides (Mirb.) Hombr. & Jacquinot ex Decne.
Calusparassus forsteri (Hook.) Hombr. & Jacquinot ex Decne.
Fagus betuloides Mirb.
Fagus dubia Mirb.
Fagus forsteri Hook.
Nothofagus dubia (Mirb.) Oerst.
Nothofagus forsteri (Hook.) Krasser
Nothofagus patagonica Gand.
Nothofagus betuloides is an evergreen shrub or more commonly a tree with a dense, leafy crown; it usually grows up to 15 metres tall, but can reach 30 metres in favoured sites and is more likely to be a shrub when growing near the coast[
The tree is harvested from the wild for mainly local use as a source of materials and on a commercial basis for its wood.
S. America - southern Argentina to southern Chile.
Dominant or locally dominant in evergreen forest on better drained sites in areas of higher rainfall from sea level to 500 metres in S. Chile[
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Nothofagus betuloides is fairly hardy - in its native habitat it can experience temperatures as low as -15 to -20Â°c and experiences snow for 1 - 8 months of the year[
]. A 30 year old cultivated tree (1992) has made remarkable growth at Crarae in western Scotland[
Prefers an open well-drained loamy soil in a sunny position[
]. Dislikes exposure to cold, drying winds[
]. Succeeds on most soils but dislikes calcareous soils[
]. Prefers a pH between 5 and 7, but dislikes acid peats[
Species in this genus often have poor wind resistance in cultivation, probably because they grow so fast[
]. This species dislikes cold winds but is tolerant of warm moist winds[
Trees up to 4 metres tall can be successfully established, though the optimum size for transplanting is about 30 - 80cm. The roots are very sensitive to desiccation and extreme care should be taken when transplanting them[
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[
The bark is used for making buckets and torches, it is also used as a torch which suggests that it is rich in resin[
The wood is heavy, hard. It has similar uses to the beech tree (Fagus sylvatica)[
The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cool greenhouse or cold frame. Spring-sown seed requires 2 - 3 months stratification at 1 - 5Â°c[
]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in a lightly shaded position in the cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. The seed must not be allowed to dry out according to one report[
] whilst another says that the seed can be stored dry at 2Â°c for long periods[
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 6 - 10cm with a heel, mid summer in a frame[