Lupinus caudiciferus Eastw.
Lupinus columbianus A.Heller
Lupinus confusus A.Heller
Lupinus confusus Rose
Lupinus cytisoides J.Agardh
Lupinus lasiotropis C.F.Baker
Lupinus perennis latifolius (J.Agardh) E.Phillips
Lupinus rivularis latifolius (J.Agardh) S.Watson
Lupinus barbatus (L.F. Hend.) A. Heller
Lupinus ligulatus barbatus L.F. Hend.
Lupinus rivularis barbatus (L.F. Hend.) Jeps.
Lupinus dudleyi (C.P.Sm.) Eastw.
Lupinus leucanthus Rydb.
Lupinus ligulatus Greene
Lupinus columbianus simplex C.P.Sm.
Lupinus edwin-livingstoni C.P.Sm.
Lupinus longipes Greene
Lupinus pennellianus Eastw.
Lupinus parishii Eastw.
Lupinus rivularis viridifolius (A.Heller) Jeps.
Lupinus viridifolius A.Heller
Lupinus latifolius is an erect, herbaceous perennial plant producing a cluster of densely branched stems from a woody caudex and extensive root system; it can grow up to 120cm tall[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and source of materials. It is used in soil restoration and stabilization projects, and is sometimes grown as an ornamental in gardens.
Lupinus species in general (and especially the seeds) contain a range of bitter-tasting alkaloids such as lupine, anagyrine, sparteine and hydroxylupanine. The pharmacological effects of these alkaloids are that they block ganglionic transmission, decrease cardiac contractility and contract uterine smooth muscle[
]. When ingested in moderate to large quantities they can cause symptoms such as respiratory depression and slow heartbeat, sleepiness and convulsions[
Alkaloid levels can vary greatly from species to species, and several members of the genus are used for food. In some species low-alkaloid, sweeter-tasting varieties have been developed. There are also techniques (particularly soaking and discarding the soak water) that lower the alkaloid levels.
Unless it is known that the plant is low in alkaloids then caution should be applied to any ingestion of the plant[
Fungal toxins can readily invade the crushed seed and can cause chronic illness[
Western N. America - southern Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona
Open woods and thickets; at elevations up to 2,100 metres[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Ornamental, Wild
Lupinus latifolius is a moderately cold-hardy plant, able to tolerate temperatures down to around -15°c when fully dormant[
Members of this genus are mainly found in dry habitats, often on stony and low fertility soils[
]. This species, however, is more common on moister, but well-drained, soils[
]. In cultivation they generally grow well if given a sunny position in a deep, well-drained, moderately fertile soil with a neutral to slightly acid pH[
A very variable species, eight subspecies and varieties are recognized.
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria; these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[
The leaves and flowers are steamed and then dried. When required, they are boiled and used as a relish with manzanita (Arctostaphyllos species) cider[
A tea made from the seeds is used as a diuretic[
The plant is a common colonizing species of disturbed sites within its native range. Its ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, to grow well on droughty and low-fertility sites, and its extensive root system, enable it to stabilize and enrich the soil, creating suitable conditions for other species to thrive. It is also able to compete successfully as those other species become dominant and can be found in open spaces in mature woodlands[
]. It is a valuable tool for the rehabilitation of disturbed sites, and is commonly used for erosion control[
The leaves are used to line baskets and then act as a filter to prevent flour leaching out when leaching ground-up acorns[
We have no specific information for this species, but the soakwater used to extract alkaloids from several edible species of lupin has been shown to be effective as a biocide[
Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water and then sow in early spring in a greenhouse[
]. The seed is best sown in individual pots since the plants strongly resent root disturbance. Germination should take place within a couple of weeks. If sown in trays, then the seedlings should be potted up into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle. Plant out in early summer when the plants are around 15cm tall.
It should also be possible to sow the seed in situ in mid to late spring. Protect the seed from mice.
Root cuttings. The plant is known to grow even from short sections of the rhizome[
Basal cuttings, mid spring in a cold frame. Harvest the shoots when they are about 10cm long with plenty of underground stem. Pot them up in a very sandy soil in individual pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.
Division in early spring. Difficult.
Lupin propagation is usually carried out by seed - vegetative propagation is normally only used when propagating named cultivars[