Until 2013, this species was considered to be a subspecies of Juniperus phoenicea (as Juniperus phoenicea turbinata (Guss.) Nyman). It is now treated as a distinct species, with the full range previously attributed to Juniperus phoenicea, whilst Juniperus phoenicea itself is restricted to the Iberian Peninsula, southern France and a small area in northwestern Italy[
Cupressus devoniana Beissn.
Juniperus canariensis Guyot & Mathou
Juniperus lycia L.
Juniperus oophore Kunze
Juniperus phoenicea eumediterranea P.Lebreton & Thivend
Juniperus phoenicea lobelia Guss.
Juniperus phoenicea lycia (L.) St.-Lag.
Juniperus phoenicea malacocarpa Endl.
Juniperus phoenicea megalocarpa Maire
Juniperus phoenicea prostrata Debreczy & I.RÃ¡cz
Juniperus phoenicea sclerocarpa Endl.
Juniperus phoenicea turbinata (Guss.) Nyman
Oxycedrus licia Garsault
Sabina lycia (L.) Antoine
Sabina turbinata (Guss.) Antoine
Juniperus turbinata is an evergreen shrub or a tree with a dense, conical crown; it usually grows up to 6 metres tall, occasionally reaching 10 metres, with a trunk that can reach 100 - 200cm in diameter[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of materials; it is also used as an ingredient in commercial cosmetic preparations. It has potential for use as a pioneer when restoring native woodland, and is sometimes grown as an ornamental in gardens.
The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
Mediterranean region - Portugal to Italy and Greece; Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt, Sinai and Saudi Arabia
Hills and dunes and in arid mountain regions; at elevations up to 1,200 metres[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Ornamental, Wild
Juniperus turbinata is not a very cold-hardy plant, able to tolerate short-lived temperatures down to around -5Â°c when fully dormant[
]. It is native mainly to coastal regions of the western Mediterranean, though can also be found further inland, experiencing hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. It can succeed in regions where the annual precipitation is only 200mm[
Requires an open, sunny position and a well-drained soil, favouring but not restricted to calcareous substrates[
]. The plant can experience sea spray and severe winter storms in its native habitat[
The plant is sometimes grown as an ornamental[
The plant is said to be able to live for more than 1,000 years[
Plants are usually monoecious, though dioecious forms occur and can be locally predominant[
]. In this case, both male and female forms would need to be grown if seeds were to be produced.
The reddish and more or less succulent seed cones can be used as a flavouring in cooking and alcoholic beverages[
]. The dark reddish or yellowish brown, globose fruits take two years to mature. They are around 8 - 15mm in diameter, containing three to nine seeds[
The aerial parts of the plant are used in the treatment of skin diseases, pharyngitis, rheumatism, diabetes and diarrhoea[
Juniperus turbinata is a natural pioneer species, moving into open areas, grassland, abandoned fields etc and creating an environment suitable for other woodland plants to become established[
]. It can be used to restore native woodland and also to establish woodland gardens[
An extract of the gum of the plant is used as an ingredient in commercial cosmetic preparations as a skin tonic [
An extract obtained from the wood of the plant is used as an ingredient in commercial cosmetic preparations for perfumery[
The above use was listed under Juniperus phoenicea. Since this species was at that time considered to be a subspecies of Juniperus phoenicea, and no details of region where the plant is collected was given, it is very likely that the above uses refer to both species[
The rose-coloured wood is fine-grained, hard, solid and resinous with an aromatic fragrance. It is appreciated, like other juniper woods, for small manufactured objects and inlay works. In Algeria and Tunisia, when the trunk grows straight, it is used for joinery and carpentry[
In Africa the wood is used mainly as fuel and for the production of charcoal[
The wood is of little commercial value[
The seed requires a period of cold stratification. The seed has a hard seedcoat and can be very slow to germinate, requiring a cold period followed by a warm period and then another cold spell, each of 2 - 3 months duration[
]. Soaking the seed for 3 - 6 seconds in boiling water may speed up the germination process[
]. The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Some might germinate in the following spring, though most will take another year. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (when the embryo has fully formed but before the seedcoat has hardened). The seedlings can be potted up into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow on in pots until large enough, then plant out in early summer. When stored dry, the seed can remain viable for several years[
Cuttings of mature wood, 5 - 10cm with a heel, September/early autumn in a cold frame. Plant out in the following autumn[
Layering in September/early autumn. Takes 12 months[