Juniperus butanensis Wender.
Juniperus canescens Wall. ex Gordon
Juniperus incurva Buch.-Ham. ex Endl.
Juniperus lambertiana Wall. ex Endl.
Juniperus lorulasi K.Koch
Juniperus nepalensis Rinz. ex Gordon
Juniperus procumbens Siebold ex Lindl.
Juniperus religiosa Royle
Juniperus repanda Carrière
Juniperus squamosa Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.
Juniperus uncinate (R.P.Adams) R.P.Adams
Juniperus uvifera Loudon
Sabina recurva (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Antoine
Sabinella recurva (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) Nakai
Common Name: Himalayan Juniper
Juniperus recurva is an evergreen shrub or a tree with a usually broadly pyramidal crown; it can grow 9 - 12 metres tall, though at higher elevations it can be a prostrate or straggling shrub. The plant is usually clothed to the ground with branches - these are curved downwards at their ends[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of materials. It has excellent potential for use as a pioneer species to restore native woodland, and is often grown as an ornamental in gardens.
The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
E. Asia - Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, northern Myanmar and China (Xizang, Sichuan, Yunnan)
High montane to subalpine coniferous forest, and an understorey in Rhododendron thickets at higher elevations, in rocky areas or in alpine meadows strewn with boulders, usually on siliceous rock; at elevations from 2,500 - 4,500 metres[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Ornamental, Wild
Juniperus recurva is a moderately cold-hardy plant, able to tolerate temperatures down to around -15°c when dormant[
]. It grows wild in the wetter areas of the Himalayas; at elevations up to 4,600 metres[
]. This is one of the few junipers that require a good amount of rainfall and thrive best in a maritime, cool but mild climates[
Succeeds in most soils if they are well drained, preferring a neutral or slightly alkaline soil[
] and succeeding on chalk[
]. Prefers a humid sheltered site, doing well in areas with high rainfall[
]. Does not succeed in dry areas[
]. Unlike most members of the genus, this species grows better in the wetter western part of Britain[
A very ornamental plant[
] but slow growing in Britain, even young trees fail to average 25cm a year[
]. It is grown as an ornamental tree in the gardens of monasteries and temples[
]. The drooping form Juniperus recurva var. coxii is a highly ornamental tree much valued as an ornamental and often planted in regions of Europe with a mild, moist climate[
A slow-growing tree in the wild[
Plants are resistant to honey fungus[
Usually a monoecious species, plants are sometimes dioecious, in which case both male and female forms must be grown if fruit and seed are required.
Fruit - raw or cooked. The cones are up to 11mm long and 8mm wide[
]. The dark purple, egg-shaped seed cones ripen in the second year; they are around 18mm long, containing a single seed[
Smoke from the green wood is emetic and produces long-continued vomiting[
In western Yunnan this variety is a pioneer after destructive forest fires that had killed most trees of Abies and Tsuga in the area. Extensive stands of Juniperus recurva var. recurva observed in the Nu Shan, NW of Caojianmay be the result of past forest destruction[
The wood and leaves are used as an incense[
]. The resinous twigs are burnt as an incense[
The leaves contain about 1.7% essential oil[
The heartwood is light red; the sapwood white. The very fragrant wood is close and even-grained, moderately hard[
]. The aromatic wood of large trees is used to make coffins[
]. The wood is very good, quite equal to the best pencil-cedar; but it is little used in the Himalayas[
The seed requires a period of cold stratification. The seed has a hard seedcoat and can be very slow to germinate, requiring a cold period followed by a warm period and then another cold spell, each of 2 - 3 months duration[
]. Soaking the seed for 3 - 6 seconds in boiling water may speed up the germination process[
]. The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Some might germinate in the following spring, though most will take another year. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (when the embryo has fully formed but before the seedcoat has hardened). The seedlings can be potted up into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow on in pots until large enough, then plant out in early summer. When stored dry, the seed can remain viable for several years[
Cuttings of mature wood, 5 - 10cm with a heel, September/early autumn in a cold frame. Plant out in the following autumn[
Layering in September/early autumn. Takes 12 months[