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Useful Temperate Plants

Juniperus phoenicea

L.

Cupressaceae


Until 2013, this species was considered in a wider sense and its range was treated as covering almost all of the Mediterranean region. The former subspecies Juniperus phoenicea turbinata is now considered to be a full species (as Juniperus turbinata Guss.), with the full range previously attributed to Juniperus phoenicea, whilst Juniperus phoenicea is restricted to the Iberian Peninsula, southern France and a small area in northwestern Italy[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

+ Synonyms

Cupressus tetragona Humb. & Bonpl. ex Carrière

Juniperus bacciformis Carrière

Juniperus divaricata Carrière

Juniperus formosa Carrière

Juniperus langoldiana Gordon

Juniperus malacocarpa Carrière

Juniperus myosuros Sénécl.

Juniperus myurus Beissn.

Juniperus terminalis Salisb.

Juniperus tetragona Moench

Sabina bacciformis (Carrière) Antoine

Sabina phoenicea (L.) Antoine

Sabinella phoenicea (L.) Nakai

Common Name: Phoenician Juniper

No Image.

General Information

Juniperus phoenicea is an evergreen shrub or a tree with a dense, conical crown; it usually grows up to 6 metres tall, occasionally reaching 10 metres, with a trunk that can reach 100 - 200cm in diameter[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
]
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of materials; it is also used as an ingredient in commercial cosmetic preparations. It has potential for use as a pioneer when restoring native woodland, and is sometimes grown as an ornamental in gardens.
The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

The essentail oil in the plant contains sabinol . This compound is a strong irritant and can cause digestive, neurological, cardiorespiratory and hepato-renal disorders[
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
].

Botanical References


Range

Southwestern Europe - Portugal, Spain, southern France, northwest Italy

Habitat

Forming scrub, thickets and open woodlans on hills, stable dunes and in arid mountain regions; at elevations up to 1,200 metres[
329
Title
The Gymnosperm Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.conifers.org/index.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A vast amount of information on conifers and families of gymnosperms.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
]

Properties

Conservation StatusLeast Concern
Edibility Rating *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height5.00 m
Growth RateSlow
PollinatorsWind
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Juniperus phoenicea is not a very cold-hardy plant, able to tolerate short-lived temperatures down to around -5°c when fully dormant[
329
Title
The Gymnosperm Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.conifers.org/index.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A vast amount of information on conifers and families of gymnosperms.
]. It is native mainly to coastal regions of the western Mediterranean, though can also be found further inland, experiencing hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. It can succeed in regions where the annual precipitation is only 200mm[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
Requires an open, sunny position and a well-drained soil, favouring but not restricted to calcareous substrates[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
]. The plant can experience sea spray and severe winter storms in its native habitat[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
The plant is sometimes grown as an ornamental[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
The plant is said to be able to live for more than 1,000 years[
329
Title
The Gymnosperm Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.conifers.org/index.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A vast amount of information on conifers and families of gymnosperms.
].
Plants are usually monoecious, though dioecious forms occur and can be locally predominant[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
]. In this case, both male and female forms would need to be grown if seeds were to be produced.

Edible Uses

The reddish and more or less succulent seed cones can be used as a flavouring in cooking and alcoholic beverages[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
]. The dark reddish or yellowish brown, globose fruits take two years to mature. They are around 8 - 15mm in diameter, containing three to nine seeds[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].

Medicinal

The aerial parts of the plant are used in the treatment of skin diseases, pharyngitis, rheumatism, diabetes and diarrhoea[
1276
Title
Antiviral activity of some Tunisian medicinal plants against Herpes simplex virus type 1
Publication
Natural Product Research, 22:1, 53 - 65, 2008
Author
Sassi, A. Ben, Harzallah-Skhiri, F., Bourgougnon, N. and Aou
Website
http:// http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786410701589790
Publisher
 
Year
2008
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
(The above uses were attributed to Juniperus phoenicea growing in Tunisia (which would in actuality have been the subspecies turbinata). The plants growing in that region are now considered to be the distinct species, Juniperus turbinata. Since the two species are very closely related, it would be reasonable to assume that these uses are interchangeable[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

An essential oil obtained from the plant is antifungal and antimicrobial[
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
].

Agroforestry Uses:

Phoenician Juniper is a natural pioneer species, moving into open areas, grassland, abandoned fields etc and creating an environment suitable for other woodland plants to become established[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
]. It can be used to restore native woodland and also to establish woodland gardens[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

Other Uses

An extract of the gum of the plant is used as an ingredient in commercial cosmetic preparations as a skin tonic [
1243
Title
CosIng
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/cosing/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
CosIng is the European Commission database for information on cosmetic substances and ingredients.
].
An extract obtained from the wood of the plant is used as an ingredient in commercial cosmetic preparations for perfumery[
1243
Title
CosIng
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/cosing/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
CosIng is the European Commission database for information on cosmetic substances and ingredients.
].

The rose-coloured wood is fine-grained, hard, solid and resinous with an aromatic fragrance. It is appreciated, like other juniper woods, for small manufactured objects and inlay works. In Algeria and Tunisia, when the trunk grows straight, it is used for joinery and carpentry[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
In Africa the wood is used mainly as fuel and for the production of charcoal[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
The wood is of little commercial value[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Propagation

The seed requires a period of cold stratification. The seed has a hard seedcoat and can be very slow to germinate, requiring a cold period followed by a warm period and then another cold spell, each of 2 - 3 months duration[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
,
81
Title
Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Rushforth. K.
Publisher
Christopher Helm
Year
1987
ISBN
0-7470-2801-X
Description
Deals with conifers that can be grown outdoors in Britain. Good notes on cultivation and a few bits about plant uses.
]. Soaking the seed for 3 - 6 seconds in boiling water may speed up the germination process[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Some might germinate in the following spring, though most will take another year. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (when the embryo has fully formed but before the seedcoat has hardened). The seedlings can be potted up into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow on in pots until large enough, then plant out in early summer. When stored dry, the seed can remain viable for several years[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
].
Cuttings of mature wood, 5 - 10cm with a heel, September/early autumn in a cold frame. Plant out in the following autumn[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
,
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Layering in September/early autumn. Takes 12 months[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2018-12-15. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Juniperus+phoenicea>

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