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Useful Temperate Plants

Juniperus oxycedrus

L.

Cupressaceae

+ Synonyms

Juniperus bieberstieniana K.Koch

Juniperus glauca Salisb.

Juniperus heterocarpa Timb.-Lagr. ex Loret & Barrandon

Juniperus heterocarpa Timb.-Lagr. ex Nyman

Juniperus marschalliana Steven

Juniperus oxycedrina St.-Lag.

Juniperus rhodocarpa Steven

Juniperus rufescens Link

Juniperus souliei Sennen

Juniperus tenella Antoine

Juniperus tremolsii Pau

Juniperus wittmanniana Fisch. ex Lindl.

Oxycedrus echinoformis Carrière

Oxycedrus ericoides Pandiani

Oxycedrus withmanniana Carrière

Common Name: Prickly Juniper

No Image.

General Information

Juniperus oxycedrus is an evergreen shrub or a tree with a conical crown when young, becoming irregular with age; it usually grows up to 6 metres tall but can reach 10 - 15 metres. The bole can be up to 30cm in diameter[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine, food flavouring and a source of materials. It is grown as an ornamental in gardens.
Juniperus oxycedrus is widespread and locally common in the Mediterranean area. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
50
Title
Flora Europaea
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Year
1964
ISBN
-
Description
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for Europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Range

Throughout the Mediterranean region and east through Turkey and the Caucasus to Iraq and Iran

Habitat

Dry, stony slopes in thin soils over all kinds of rock from calcareous to siliceous and serpentine, occasionally on sand dunes, growing in maquis, garrigue, dry mixed woodland, scrub, also in montane and wetter forest; at elevations to 2,200 metres[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
]

Properties

Conservation StatusLeast Concern
Edibility Rating *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height15.00 m
PollinatorsWind
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusWild

Cultivation Details

Juniperus oxycedrus is largely restricted to regions with a Mediterranean climate, but in the Balkans and the Iberian Peninsula it may occur in more continental conditions. It requires warm to hot summers in order to thrive and dislikes moist to wet climates. The subspecies badia and oxycedrus are tolerant of frost, unlike the subspecies macrocarpa and transtagana, and have been known to survive temperatures falling to around -15°c for short periods[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
Requires an open, sunny position. Succeeds in most soils if they are well drained, preferring a neutral or slightly alkaline soil[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
,
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
] and succeeding on chalk[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. A drought tolerant plant once established, succeeding in hot dry positions[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Prickly Juniper is suitable for cultivation as an ornamental in southern Europe where a number of cultivars, especially with more pendulous foliage, are commonly planted in gardens and parks[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
]
A dioecious species - both male and female forms must be grown if fruit and seed are required.

Edible Uses

The mature seed cones are sometimes used as a flavouring in savoury foods, as condiments and as pickles[
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
]. The brown-red, spherical seed cones take two years to mature; they are around 7 - 12mm in diameter, containing 1 - 3 seeds[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
].

An essential oil obtained from the wood is sometimes used to give a smoky flavour to foods[
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
].

Medicinal

The plant yields the essential oil 'Oil of Cade' by destructive distillation of the wood[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
]. The oil is antimicrobial, antiparasitic, antiseptic and vulnerary[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
61
Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
,
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
]. It is sometimes used internally to rid the body of worms[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
]. The oil should not be used internally[
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
].
The oil is more commonly applied externally, diluted with a carrier oil such as almond oil, in order to treat conditions such as haemorrhoids; a range of skin conditions including dermatitis, psoriasis and eczema; and for helping to heal wounds[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
,
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
]. It is a good parasiticide in cases of psora and favus[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
].
The oil can cause allergic dermatitis in some individuals[
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
].

The seed cones have a diuretic, expectorant and stimulant action[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
]. A decoction is used to help pass kidney stones and to treat catarrh[
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
]
The pounded fruits are applied to the abdomen to treat bloating, abdominal pain, loss of appetite. Make into a wash they are used to treat haemorrhoids[
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
].
The cones contain 1.5% of essential oil[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].
Some caution needs to be employed - prolonged usage, or excessive amounts can cause irritation to the kidneys and the urinary tract[
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
].

Extracts of the leaves and stems have been shown to have significant anti-inflammatory effects, whilst some analgesic effects were also noted[
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
]. Spasmolytic properties and effects on arterial blood pressure were also
reported[
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
].

Other Uses

An oil distilled from the heartwood, known as 'Oil of Cade', is used medicinally, in men's scents, as a food flavouring and as a parasiticide. It is also used as an immersion oil in microscope work[
61
Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
,
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
].
An essentail oil and other extracts obtained from various parts of the plant are used as ingredients in commercial cosmetic preparations for purposes such as skin conditioning, tonics, perfumery and masking the aroma of other ingredients[
1243
Title
CosIng
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/cosing/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
CosIng is the European Commission database for information on cosmetic substances and ingredients.
].

The fresh stems and leaves are burned as an incense in order to control house pests[
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
].

The heartwood is reddish; the sapwood white. The wood is close-grained, hard, very durable. It is highly valued for furniture-making and other carpentry items[
1228
Title
European Atlas of Forest Tree Species
Publication
 
Author
San-Miguel-Ayanz, J., de Rigo, D., Caudullo, G., Houston Dur
Website
http://10.2788/038466
Publisher
European Commission
Year
2016
ISBN
978-92-79-52833-0
Description
An excellent guide to the forest trees of Europe. It can be downloaded from the Internet
]. It is mainly used locally for purposes such as construction and carpentry, whilst the wood has also been used for pencil-making[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].
The wood is used for fuel and also to make charcoal[
1059
Title
A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa
Publication
 
Author
 
Publisher
IUCN; Malaga, Spain
Year
2005
ISBN
2-8317-0893-1
Description
A guide to over 100 species of medicinal herbs in N. Africa.
].

Propagation

The seed requires a period of cold stratification. The seed has a hard seedcoat and can be very slow to germinate, requiring a cold period followed by a warm period and then another cold spell, each of 2 - 3 months duration[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
,
81
Title
Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Rushforth. K.
Publisher
Christopher Helm
Year
1987
ISBN
0-7470-2801-X
Description
Deals with conifers that can be grown outdoors in Britain. Good notes on cultivation and a few bits about plant uses.
]. Soaking the seed for 3 - 6 seconds in boiling water may speed up the germination process[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Some might germinate in the following spring, though most will take another year. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (when the embryo has fully formed but before the seedcoat has hardened). The seedlings can be potted up into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow on in pots until large enough, then plant out in early summer. When stored dry, the seed can remain viable for several years[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
].
Cuttings of mature wood, 5 - 10cm with a heel, September/early autumn in a cold frame. Plant out in the following autumn[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
,
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Layering in September/early autumn. Takes 12 months[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2018-11-17. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Juniperus+oxycedrus>

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