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Useful Temperate Plants

Juniperus foetidissima

Willd.

Cupressaceae

+ Synonyms

Juniperus phoenicea Pall.

Juniperus sabina Sm.

Juniperus sabinoides Griseb.

Sabina foetidissima (Willd.) Antoine

Sabina grisebachii Antoine

Common Name:

No Image.

General Information

Juniperus foetidissima is an evergreen shrub or a tree with a pyramidal crown that becomes broad and irregular with age; it usually grows up to 15 metres tall, occasionally reaching 20 metres, with some old trees exceptionally reaching more than 40 metres. The bole can be 100cm in diameter. At higher elevations the plant is more shrub-like and can be prostrate[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
,
1212
Title
New Trees
Publication
 
Author
Grimshaw J.; Bayton R.; Wilks H.
Publisher
Kew Publishing; London
Year
2009
ISBN
1842461737
Description
Provides comprehensive botanical descriptions and horticultural commentary on over 800 tree species that have been introduced to cultivation in recent decades.
].
The tree is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine and source of wood. It is sometimes grown as an ornamental in gardens.
This widespread species is not globally threatened. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

1212
Title
New Trees
Publication
 
Author
Grimshaw J.; Bayton R.; Wilks H.
Publisher
Kew Publishing; London
Year
2009
ISBN
1842461737
Description
Provides comprehensive botanical descriptions and horticultural commentary on over 800 tree species that have been introduced to cultivation in recent decades.

Range

Southeast Europe - Serbia to Greece; W. Asia - Turky, Lebanon, Caucasus, Turkmenistan and northwest Iran

Habitat

Scrubland, Juniperus-Quercus scrub, open pine forest and other coniferous forest, often on limestone crags or rocky slopes, or on serpentine or other base-rich rock, in shallow soils; at elevations from 700 - 2,000 metres[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Properties

Conservation StatusLeast Concern
Medicinal Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height12.00 m
Growth RateSlow
PollinatorsWind
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusOrnamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Juniperus foetidissima is native to hot, dry summer regions from the Mediterranean region with its mild, moist winters, with transitions to more continental interior regions where winters are drier and colder[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
]. The plant is known to tolerate short-lived temperatures down to around -8°c in cultivation[
329
Title
The Gymnosperm Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.conifers.org/index.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A vast amount of information on conifers and families of gymnosperms.
]. The mean annual precipitation within its native range can vary from 400 - 1,000mm[
1212
Title
New Trees
Publication
 
Author
Grimshaw J.; Bayton R.; Wilks H.
Publisher
Kew Publishing; London
Year
2009
ISBN
1842461737
Description
Provides comprehensive botanical descriptions and horticultural commentary on over 800 tree species that have been introduced to cultivation in recent decades.
].
Requires a sunny position in a well-drained soil. Grows in the wild on limestone crags or rocky slopes, or on serpentine or other base-rich rock, often in shallow soils[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
The plant takes around 30 years from seed to producing seed[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
In the wild, despite its often rather arid habitat, Juniperus foetidissima can become immense and very ancient. Trees are known in Turkey with measurements of up to 42 metres tall, and trunks up to 200cm in diameter, and one of 27 metres has been recorded with a diameter of 462cm. In cultivation, however, there appear to be very few trees, which is curious - especially with provenances so close to western Europe as the Balkans. At the Hillier Gardens in southern England a slow-growing specimen planted before 1976 has now reached 5.5 metres (trunk 7cm in diameter), but this is the only one traced[
1212
Title
New Trees
Publication
 
Author
Grimshaw J.; Bayton R.; Wilks H.
Publisher
Kew Publishing; London
Year
2009
ISBN
1842461737
Description
Provides comprehensive botanical descriptions and horticultural commentary on over 800 tree species that have been introduced to cultivation in recent decades.
].

Edible Uses

The dark blue or black, globose seed cones are 5 - 13mm in diameter, becoming somewhat resinous and woody with maturity[
1212
Title
New Trees
Publication
 
Author
Grimshaw J.; Bayton R.; Wilks H.
Publisher
Kew Publishing; London
Year
2009
ISBN
1842461737
Description
Provides comprehensive botanical descriptions and horticultural commentary on over 800 tree species that have been introduced to cultivation in recent decades.
]. We have seen no reports regarding the edibility of these cones.

Medicinal

The young shoots are used in the treatmnt of coughs and the common cold[
1284
Title
Traditional Medicine in Turkey VI.Folk Medicine in West Anatolia: Afyon, Kütahya, Denizli, Muğla, Aydın provinces
Publication
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 53 (1996) 75-87
Author
Gisho Honda; Erdem Yesilada; Mamoru Tabata; Ekrem Sezik; Tet
Publisher
 
Year
1996
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

The fresh seed cones are used to treat joint calcification[
1286
Title
Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of Some Juniperus Species Growing in Turkey
Publication
Turk J Biol 36 (2012) 719-726
Author
Orhan N.; Akkol E.; Ergun F.
Publisher
 
Year
2012
ISBN
doi:10.3906/biy-1
Description
 
]

An ethanol extract of the seed cones has shown a significant antiinflammatory activity[
1286
Title
Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of Some Juniperus Species Growing in Turkey
Publication
Turk J Biol 36 (2012) 719-726
Author
Orhan N.; Akkol E.; Ergun F.
Publisher
 
Year
2012
ISBN
doi:10.3906/biy-1
Description
 
].

Other Uses

An essential oil can be obtained from the heartwood. Over 120 compounds have been detected in the oil - the main components are cedrol (13 - 15.3%); widdrol (8.8 - 12.2%); cis-thujopsens (10.5 - 10.9%); alpha-cedrene (5.8 - 8.2%); 8,14-cedranoxide (4.1 - 5.5%); 14-hydroxyl-beta-caryophyllene (5.1 - 8.7%). It has potential for use in a range of applications such as fragrance compounds, scenting soaps, room sprays, disinfectants, as a cleaning agent for microscope sections etc[
1285
Title
A Potential New Source of Cedarwood Oil: Juniperus foetidissima Willd.
Publication
J. Essent. Oil Res. 16, 233-235 (May/June 2004)
Author
Tunalier Z.; Kirimer N.; Baser K.H.C.
Publisher
 
Year
2004
ISBN
DOI: 10.1080/1041
Description
 
].

The wood is firm, rather rigid, aromatic, resistant to insect damage. Where wood of sufficient dimension is available, it is highly valued as construction timber and is used in carpentry for manufacturing cupboards, chests and household goods[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
1285
Title
A Potential New Source of Cedarwood Oil: Juniperus foetidissima Willd.
Publication
J. Essent. Oil Res. 16, 233-235 (May/June 2004)
Author
Tunalier Z.; Kirimer N.; Baser K.H.C.
Publisher
 
Year
2004
ISBN
DOI: 10.1080/1041
Description
 
].
The wood is used for fuel[
1285
Title
A Potential New Source of Cedarwood Oil: Juniperus foetidissima Willd.
Publication
J. Essent. Oil Res. 16, 233-235 (May/June 2004)
Author
Tunalier Z.; Kirimer N.; Baser K.H.C.
Publisher
 
Year
2004
ISBN
DOI: 10.1080/1041
Description
 
]
Large trees have been utilized in the past for the making of durables like furniture, but its commercial use is now limited. In some areas firewood may still be extracted from this species[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Propagation

The seed requires a period of cold stratification. The seed has a hard seedcoat and can be very slow to germinate, requiring a cold period followed by a warm period and then another cold spell, each of 2 - 3 months duration[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
,
81
Title
Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Rushforth. K.
Publisher
Christopher Helm
Year
1987
ISBN
0-7470-2801-X
Description
Deals with conifers that can be grown outdoors in Britain. Good notes on cultivation and a few bits about plant uses.
]. Soaking the seed for 3 - 6 seconds in boiling water may speed up the germination process[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Some might germinate in the following spring, though most will take another year. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (when the embryo has fully formed but before the seedcoat has hardened). The seedlings can be potted up into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow on in pots until large enough, then plant out in early summer. When stored dry, the seed can remain viable for several years[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
].
Cuttings of mature wood, 5 - 10cm with a heel, September/early autumn in a cold frame. Plant out in the following autumn[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
,
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Layering in September/early autumn. Takes 12 months[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2018-12-15. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Juniperus+foetidissima>

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