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Useful Temperate Plants

Juniperus cedrus

Webb & Berthel.

Cupressaceae


Juniperus cedrus is closely related to Juniperus oxycedrus L. in the Mediterranean and Juniperus brevifolia (Seub.) Antoine in the Azores[
1212
Title
New Trees
Publication
 
Author
Grimshaw J.; Bayton R.; Wilks H.
Publisher
Kew Publishing; London
Year
2009
ISBN
1842461737
Description
Provides comprehensive botanical descriptions and horticultural commentary on over 800 tree species that have been introduced to cultivation in recent decades.
].

+ Synonyms

Juniperus grandifolius Link

Juniperus maderensis (Menezes) R.P.Adams

Juniperus oxycedrus maderensis Menezes

Juniperus webbii Carrière

Common Name:

No Image.

General Information

Juniperus cedrus is an evergreen shrub or a tree with a narrow, conical crown when young becoming somewhat columnar and open as it ages; it can grow up to 30 metres tall. The straight bole can be 50 - 120cm in diameter[
1212
Title
New Trees
Publication
 
Author
Grimshaw J.; Bayton R.; Wilks H.
Publisher
Kew Publishing; London
Year
2009
ISBN
1842461737
Description
Provides comprehensive botanical descriptions and horticultural commentary on over 800 tree species that have been introduced to cultivation in recent decades.
].
Up to the 19th centruy this species was much exploited from the wild for its valuable timber, but numbers have now been drastically reduced and the wood is generally only used if it has been obtained from cultivation. The tree is often grown as an ornamental, but is not usually grown for its timber because it is too slow growing,
Juniperus cedrus is restricted to the Canary Islands and Madiera. It has been heavily exploited for its valuable timber and it is believed that there are no more than about 600 sexually mature individuals. Regeneration in some subpopulations is poor or absent, possibly due to reduced seed set, the decline of avian dispersers and the effects of grazing. In some locations fires have led to the loss of mature individuals. Together, these factors contribute to a continuing decline in the quality of habitat and number of mature individuals. The plant is classified as 'Endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2013)[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

1212
Title
New Trees
Publication
 
Author
Grimshaw J.; Bayton R.; Wilks H.
Publisher
Kew Publishing; London
Year
2009
ISBN
1842461737
Description
Provides comprehensive botanical descriptions and horticultural commentary on over 800 tree species that have been introduced to cultivation in recent decades.

Range

Africa - Madeira, Canary Islands

Habitat

Laurisilva forest and other high-elevation areas, though mature specimens are restricted to inaccessible cliffs because of over-exploitation; at elevations up to 2,300 metres[
1212
Title
New Trees
Publication
 
Author
Grimshaw J.; Bayton R.; Wilks H.
Publisher
Kew Publishing; London
Year
2009
ISBN
1842461737
Description
Provides comprehensive botanical descriptions and horticultural commentary on over 800 tree species that have been introduced to cultivation in recent decades.
]

Properties

Conservation StatusEndangered
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Tree
Height15.00 m
Growth RateSlow
PollinatorsWind
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Although native to the mild climates of the Canary Islands and Madeira, Juniperus cedrus is surprisingly hardy and able to tolerate temperatures down to at least -5°c for short periods. It can be grown outdoors in the milder regions of the temperate zone, with a tree growing more than 10 metres tall at Mount Usher in Ireland[
1212
Title
New Trees
Publication
 
Author
Grimshaw J.; Bayton R.; Wilks H.
Publisher
Kew Publishing; London
Year
2009
ISBN
1842461737
Description
Provides comprehensive botanical descriptions and horticultural commentary on over 800 tree species that have been introduced to cultivation in recent decades.
].
In the Canary Islands this species has become adapted to different habitats. In Tenerife and La Palma, it occurs at the timberline (2,200 metres), which characteristically has low precipitation and great diurnal temperature variation. In contrast, on La Gomera, which is lower in elevation, (1,150 metres) and has high levels of humidity as a result of the north-east trade winds. In Gran Canaria it only occurs on Montaña del Cedro, where it grows at altitudes between 800 - 900 metres, here the temperatures are relatively warmer[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
]. The subpopulation on Madeira occurs on exposed rock faces above the laurel forest tree-line above 1,400 metres in elevation[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
A highly attractive species, it is extensively cultivated as an ornamental within its native range, and is used by the forestry service particularly along the Laurissilva Levadas (manmade irrigation channels and pathways)[
329
Title
The Gymnosperm Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.conifers.org/index.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A vast amount of information on conifers and families of gymnosperms.
,
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
A 40 year old plantation at Aguamansa, above Puerto de la Cruz at 1,100 metres shows the potential of this species in the northern cloud belt; already about 15 metres tall (a very fast growth rate for a Juniper), they have telegraph-pole straight trunks to about 15 - 20cm in diameter, longer leaves to 20mm and large (12 mm) cones[
329
Title
The Gymnosperm Database
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.conifers.org/index.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A vast amount of information on conifers and families of gymnosperms.
].

Edible Uses

The reddish-yellow, subglobose to globose, fleshy seed cones take 18 months to mature; they are 9 - 12mm in diameter, containing three seeds[
1212
Title
New Trees
Publication
 
Author
Grimshaw J.; Bayton R.; Wilks H.
Publisher
Kew Publishing; London
Year
2009
ISBN
1842461737
Description
Provides comprehensive botanical descriptions and horticultural commentary on over 800 tree species that have been introduced to cultivation in recent decades.
]. We have seen no reports of any edible uses.

Medicinal

None known

Other Uses

Historically the aromatic wood was exploited in the Canaries for its valuable, aromatic timber, and used by local people for construction, in carpentry for making various items of furniture, and also for making boxes and coffins because of the wood's capacity to deter insect pests[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].
In Madeira the wood was also widely used. Even in the 15th century there were already concerns regarding the overcutting of this species. Restrictions on harvesting, however, were ineffective. There were still some small woods of Juniperus cedrus by the end of the 19th century, but the tree had almost vanished by the first decades of the 20th century. Today the wood is no longer used, unless it is taken from cultivated sources[
338
Title
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.iucnredlist.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A list of plants under threat and facing possible extinction, usually with brief details of the threats and information on habitat.
].

Propagation

The seed requires a period of cold stratification. The seed has a hard seedcoat and can be very slow to germinate, requiring a cold period followed by a warm period and then another cold spell, each of 2 - 3 months duration[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
,
81
Title
Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Rushforth. K.
Publisher
Christopher Helm
Year
1987
ISBN
0-7470-2801-X
Description
Deals with conifers that can be grown outdoors in Britain. Good notes on cultivation and a few bits about plant uses.
]. Soaking the seed for 3 - 6 seconds in boiling water may speed up the germination process[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Some might germinate in the following spring, though most will take another year. Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (when the embryo has fully formed but before the seedcoat has hardened). The seedlings can be potted up into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow on in pots until large enough, then plant out in early summer. When stored dry, the seed can remain viable for several years[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
].
Cuttings of mature wood, 5 - 10cm with a heel, September/early autumn in a cold frame. Plant out in the following autumn[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
,
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Layering in September/early autumn. Takes 12 months[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2018-12-15. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Juniperus+cedrus>

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