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Useful Temperate Plants

Hemerocallis citrina

Baroni.

Xanthorrhoeaceae


The Temperate Database is in the process of being updated, with new records being added and old ones being checked and brought up to date where necessary. This record has not yet been checked and updated.

+ Synonyms

Common Name:

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General Information

Hemerocallis citrina is a Perennial up to 0.75 metres tall.
It has edible, medicinal and miscellaneous uses.

Known Hazards

Large quantities of the leaves are said to be hallucinogenic. Blanching the leaves removes this hallucinatory component[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
]. (This report does not make clear what it means by blanching, it could be excluding light from the growing shoots or immersing in boiling water[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].)

Botanical References

200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.

Range

E. Asia - China.

Habitat

Forest margins, grassy fields and slopes along valleys from near sea level to 2000 metres[
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *  *
Medicinal Rating *
HabitPerennial
Height0.75 m
PollinatorsInsects
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusWild

Cultivation Details

Succeeds in most soils[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
], including dry ones, preferring a rich moist soil[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Succeeding in sun or shade, it produces more flowers in a sunny position though these flowers can be shorter-lived in very sunny positions[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
]. Succeeds in short grass if the soil is moist[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
]. Prefers a pH between 6 and 7[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Plants are hardy to at least -20°c[
187
Title
Perennials. Volumes 1 and 2.
Publication
 
Author
Phillips. R. & Rix. M.
Publisher
Pan Books
Year
1991
ISBN
0-330-30936-9
Description
Photographs of over 3,000 species and cultivars of ornamental plants together with brief cultivation notes, details of habitat etc.
].
Widely cultivated in China for its edible flowers, especially in Hunan province[
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
].
Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. This species is said to be self-incompatible[
127
Title
The Plantsman. Vol. 7. 1985 - 1986.
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Royal Horticultural Society
Year
1985
ISBN
-
Description
Excerpts from the periodical giving cultivation details and other notes on some of the useful plants..
,
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
].
Many of the plants in cultivation under this name are H. thunbergii[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
].
The sub-species H. citrina vespertina (Hara.)Erhardt. is a very free-flowering form, producing up to 75 buds per scape and capable of flowering from July to October if the weather is suitable[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
].
The plant forms a loose spreading clump[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]. The roots form pseudobulbs[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
].
Plants take a year or two to become established after being moved[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
].
Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits[
233
Title
Perennial Garden Plants
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
J. M. Dent & Sons, London.
Year
1990
ISBN
0 460 86048 8
Description
A concise guide to a wide range of perennials. Lots of cultivation guides, very little on plant uses.
].
The plants are very susceptible to slug and snail damage, the young growth in spring is especially at risk[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Individual flowers are very short-lived, they open in the late afternoon and die in the morning[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. However, plants produce a succession of flowers for several weeks of the summer. The number of flowers on a scape varies from 7 to 65[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
]. The flowers have a lemony scent[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
]. Another report says that they have a pronounced honeysuckle scent[
245
Title
Scented Flora of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Genders. R.
Publisher
Robert Hale. London.
Year
1994
ISBN
0-7090-5440-8
Description
An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.
].

Edible Uses

Leaves and young shoots - cooked[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
]. They must be consumed when very young or else they become fibrous[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].
Flowers and flower buds - raw or cooked[
105
Title
Tanaka's Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Tanaka. T. & Nakao S.
Publisher
Keigaku Publishing; Tokyo
Year
1976
ISBN
-
Description
The most comprehensive list of edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
,
177
Title
Plants for Human Consumption.
Publication
 
Author
Kunkel. G.
Publisher
Koeltz Scientific Books
Year
1984
ISBN
3874292169
Description
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
]. The flowers can be dried and used as a thickener in soups etc. The slender trumpets vary from 12 - 17cm long[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
]. There can be from 7 to 65 buds on a flowering stem[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
]. The flower buds contain about 43mg vitamin C per 100g, 983 IU vitamin A and 3.1% protein[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
].
Root - raw or cooked[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
]. The flavour is somewhat radish-like but not so sharp[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
].

Medicinal

The juice of the roots is an effective antidote in cases of arsenic poisoning[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
].
A tea made from the boiled roots is used as a diuretic[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
].

Other Uses

The tough dried foliage is plaited into cord and used for making footwear[
205
Title
Hemerocallis. Day Lilies.
Publication
 
Author
Erhardt. W.
Publisher
Batsford.
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7134-7065-8
Description
A comprehensive book on the species with a short section on their uses.
].

Propagation

Seed - sow in the middle of spring in a greenhouse. Germination is usually fairly rapid and good. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. Grow the plants on for their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].
Division in spring or after flowering in late summer or autumn[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Division is very quick and easy, succeeding at almost any time of the year[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.

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