This name is not universally accepted. It is treated as being not distinct from Fraxinus xanthoxyloides in Wallander, E. (2008). Systematics of Fraxinus (Oleaceae) and evolution of Dioecy. Plant Systematics and Evolution 273: 25-49.
Fraxinus xanthoxyloides dimorpha (Coss. & Durieu) Wenz.
Fraxinus xanthoxyloides dumosa (Carrière) Lingelsh.
Fraxinus dimorpha is a deciduous tree
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of materials.
Fraxinus dimorpha is endemic to North Africa, where it has a restricted distribution in Morocco and Algeria. It is very local, uncommon and fairly rare in most of its stations and the abundance of the species varies from rare to occasional and the populations are severely fragmented. The population trend of Fraxinus dimorpha is decreasing, the number of mature individuals and the population density are significantly reduced during the last decades and the species occurs often in small subpopulations. The population reduction is inferred to be very high at 70 % over the last three generation and is projected to continue declining by 50% in the future due to many threats, especially: ruthless collection for domestic uses and for trade, collection practices, overgrazing, deforestation, human activities, management activities and climate change.The plant is classified as 'Endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2017)[
N. Africa - Morocco, Algeria
Pastures, mountain plains, river banks, river beds, ravines, woodlands clearings, steep hills and Mediterranean forest; at elevations from 1,400 - 2,500 metres[
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Fraxinus dimorpha is a xerophytic plant that prefers arid and semi-arid, cool temperate and Mediterranean climates with a temperature range between -20 to 35°c. The species tolerates also the very hot and dry climate of the mountains bordering the Sahara[
The plant grows in the wild on limestone or siliceous rocks of low and medium mountains; it prefers open and sunny habitats but can be found in mid-shaded habitats[
In Morocco, Fraxinus dimorpha is managed traditionally as an important livelihood species. One stand of ash tree of the Aït M’Hamed Commune is a public forest managed by State foresters, but where access to livestock browsing and some cutting is informally allowed. Tree exploitation and management of the species in the area of the High Atlas follows a very precise sequence. It encompasses, on single living trees, overlapping cutting cycles of four years in order to produce fodder foliage, associated with eight-year cycles for the purpose of producing poles. Sometimes, particularly vigorous poles are conserved in order to produce beams in about 30-year cycles. The traditional, sustainable forest management system for this species is poorly recognised by forest and agriculture authorities in Morocco, who consider any cutting of living wood by local people as a legal offence[
The fruits and seeds, locally called 'lsan-tir', are used as spices for their culinary, medicinal and aphrodisiac qualities[
The seeds are used to flavour some drinks like 'Khodenjal' a Moroccan traditional drink and coffee[
The plant has been used in folk medicine for its diuretic, laxative, antirheumatic and mild purgative effects as well as for treating constipation, dropsy, arthritis, rheumatic pain, cystitis, animal bone fracture and itching scalp[
The plant contains a number of medically active compounds, including coumarins, secoiridoids (glucosides and esters of hydroxyphenylethyl alcohols), phenylethanoids. lignans, flavonoids and simple phenolic compounds[
The main compound group of the essential oil of the species is sesquiterpenes with (E)-nerolidol[
The seeds and leaves contain mainly the tannic compounds, coumarins and phenolic substances[
The plant is an important livelihood and agroforestry species in the Moroccan High Atlas. Here it is used for multiple purposes, for example; timber (poles, beams, and handles for tools), firewood, food, alimentary, traditional medicinal and dyes[
Fraxinus species in general are gross feeders with an extensive, fibrous root system, which makes transplanting easy, but means that other species will often not grow well if planted nearby, especially if they are shallow rooted[
The plant is a source of dyes[
The wood is used to make handles for tools, poles, beams etc[
The wood is used for fuel[
The seed is best harvested green - as soon as it is fully developed but before it has fully dried on the tree - and can then be sown immediately in a cold frame[
]. It usually germinates in the spring[
]. Stored seed requires a period of cold stratification and is best sown as soon as possible in a cold frame[
]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions or a nursery bed in late spring or early summer of the following year.
If you have sufficient seed then it is possible to sow it directly into an outdoor seedbed, preferably in the autumn. Grow the seedlings on in the seedbed for 2 years before transplanting either to their permanent positions or to nursery beds.