Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance
Fraxinus japônica Blume ex K.Koch
Fraxinus ornus bungeana Hance
Fraxinus stenocarpa Koidz.
Fraxinus intermedia Nakai
Fraxinus koshiensis Koidz.
Fraxinus densata Nakai
Fraxinus hopeiensis Tang
Fraxinus nakaiana Koidz.
Fraxinus szaboana Lingelsh.
Fraxinus velutina Lingelsh.
Fraxinus sargentiana Lingelsh.
Fraxinus lingelsheimii Rehder
Fraxinus yunnanensis Lingelsh.
Fraxinus medicinalis S.S.Sun
Common Name: Hua Qu Liu
Fraxinus chinensis is a deciduous tree that can grow from 3 - 25 metres tall[
The tree is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine and source of materials. Both subspecies are cultivated in China for the production of leaves which are used to feed a scale insect that produces candle wax[
]. The plant is also grown as an ornamental.
Fraxinus chinensis is very widespread and is not thought to be subject to major threats or population decline throughout its range. The plant is classified as 'Least Concern' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species(2017)[
E. Asia - Russian Far East, China, Japan, Korea, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam.
Woodland and thickets; at elevations up to 3,000 metres in W. China[
]. Slopes, along rivers, roadsides, mixed woods; at elevations from 800 - 2, 300 metres[
|Conservation Status||Least Concern
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Ornamental, Wild
Fraxinus chinensis has a very wide range, from the cold temperate zone of northern China to the tropics of southeast Asia. At least in the north of its range it is a moderately cold-hardy plant, able to tolerate temperatures down to around -20°c when fully dormant[
Prefers a deep loamy soil, even if it is on the heavy side[
]. Most members of this genus are gross feeders and require a rich soil[
]. Plants succeed when growing in exposed positions[
] and also in alkaline soils[
]. They tolerate atmospheric pollution[
The sub-species Fraxinus chinensis rhynchophylla (Hance) A.E.Murray grows well and is much more common in cultivation than Fraxinus chinensis[
This species might be dioecious, in which case male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.
The bark is analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, astringent, diuretic, expectorant and stomachic[
]. It controls bacterial infections and coughs[
]. It is used in the treatment of apoplexy, liver diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, eye diseases such as cataracts, cough and asthma[
The bark contains aesculin, this has anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and analgesic actions[
The bark also contains fraxetin. This has an inhibitory effect on the central nervous system, is a stronger and safer anodyne than aspirin and has some antibacterial activity[
Fraxinus species in general are gross feeders with an extensive, fibrous root system, which makes transplanting easy, but means that other species will often not grow well if planted nearby, especially if they are shallow rooted[
The plant (extract?) is said to be used as a barrier to protect the skin from ultra-violet light[
The leaves are used to feed a species of scale insects that secretes commercial candle wax[
The wood is used for cabinet making[
The seed is best harvested green - as soon as it is fully developed but before it has fully dried on the tree - and can then be sown immediately in a cold frame[
]. It usually germinates in the spring[
]. Stored seed requires a period of cold stratification and is best sown as soon as possible in a cold frame[
]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions or a nursery bed in late spring or early summer of the following year.
If you have sufficient seed then it is possible to sow it directly into an outdoor seedbed, preferably in the autumn. Grow the seedlings on in the seedbed for 2 years before transplanting either to their permanent positions or to nursery beds.