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Useful Temperate Plants

Fagus orientalis

Lipsky

Fagaceae

+ Synonyms

Fagus hohenackeri Palib. ex Grossh.

Fagus hohenackeriana Palib.

Fagus macrophylla (Hohen. ex A.DC.) Koidz.

Fagus pyramidalis Litv.

Fagus sieboldii asiatica (A.DC.) Koehne

Fagus sieboldii macrophylla (Hohen. ex A.DC.) Koehne

Fagus sylvatica asiatica A.DC.

Fagus sylvatica macrophylla Hohen. ex A.DC.

Fagus sylvatica orientalis (Lipsky) Greuter & Burdet

Common Name: Oriental Beech

No Image.

General Information

Fagus orientalis is a deciduous tree with a large, dense crown; it usually grows 30 - 40 metres tall, occasionally reaching 50 metres. The bole can be around 100cm in diameter[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
,
1195
Title
European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.euforgen.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A series of information sheets about the woodland trees of Europe with an excellent depth of treatment. They can be downloaded from the Internet
].
The tree provides a good quality timber and is also harvested from the wild as a food and source of materials.

Known Hazards

The seeds of the various species of beech are generaly edible and wholesome. However, they do contain a saponic glycoside and, if eaten in quantity (especially if eaten raw), they can cause stomach upsets[
293
Title
Poisonous Plants of North Carolina
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/consumer/poison/poison.htm
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent concise but comprehensive guide to toxic plants that grow in N. Carolina. It lists even those plants that are of very low toxicity, including several well-known food plants such as carrots and potatoes.
].

Botanical References

11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
50
Title
Flora Europaea
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Year
1964
ISBN
-
Description
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for Europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Range

Southeastern Europe - Bulgaria, Greece, eastern Turkey; W. Asia - Turkey, Iran, the Caucasus

Habitat

Broadleaved, mixed broadleaved-coniferous forests, sometimes forming pure stands, favouring moist, fertile forest soils[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitDeciduous Tree
Height20.00 m
Growth RateMedium
PollinatorsWind
Cultivation StatusWild

Cultivation Details

Fagus orientalis is a very cold-hardy tree, tolerating temperatures down to around -25°c when dormant[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Grows best in a sunny position, though young trees are also very shade tolerant, surviving in deep woodland shade for several years and then able to grow fairly rapidly if an opening occurs. Thrives on a light or medium soil[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
], doing well on chalk[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
], but ill-adapted for heavy wet soils[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
]. The new growth in spring, especially on young plants, is very subject to frost damage - growing small plants in the dappled shade of a woodland is usually sufficient to protect them[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Fairly tolerant of most conditions, this is the most successful non-native species of Fagus in Britain[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Hybridizes in nature with Fagus sylvatica[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
].
Large yields of seed are not obtainable annually but rather in 5 - 10 -year cycles[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
]. A good seed crop of oriental beech occurs about every 2 - 5 years[
1195
Title
European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.euforgen.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A series of information sheets about the woodland trees of Europe with an excellent depth of treatment. They can be downloaded from the Internet
].
Large mature trees at Kew produced a very good crop of seed in 1999[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

Edible Uses

Young leaves - raw. A very nice mild flavour, but the leaves quickly become tough so only the youngest should be used. New growth is usually produced for 2 periods of 3 weeks each year, one in spring and one in mid-summer.

Seed - raw or cooked. Rich in oil. The seed should not be eaten raw in large quantities. It can be dried and ground into a powder and then used with cereal flours when making bread, cakes etc. The seeds are small triangular nuts 15 - 20mm long and 7 - 10mm wide at the base; there are two nuts enclosed in a spiky cupule[
1195
Title
European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.euforgen.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A series of information sheets about the woodland trees of Europe with an excellent depth of treatment. They can be downloaded from the Internet
].

An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[
105
Title
Tanaka's Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Tanaka. T. & Nakao S.
Publisher
Keigaku Publishing; Tokyo
Year
1976
ISBN
-
Description
The most comprehensive list of edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
,
177
Title
Plants for Human Consumption.
Publication
 
Author
Kunkel. G.
Publisher
Koeltz Scientific Books
Year
1984
ISBN
3874292169
Description
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
,
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
]. Beech nuts contain a considerable amount of valuable oil which is extracted by pressing. Apart from its applications for food, this oil is used as adulterant for walnut, poppy, or olive oil[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

Medicinal

None known

Agroforestry Uses:

Beech trees generally have surface-feeding roots and also cast a dense shade - this greatly inhibits the growth of other plants and, especially where a number of the trees are growing together, the ground beneath them is often almost devoid of vegetation[
226
Title
Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada
Publication
 
Author
Lauriault. J.
Publisher
Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario.
Year
1989
ISBN
0889025649
Description
Very good on identification for non-experts, the book also has a lot of information on plant uses.
,
227
Title
Trees of North Texas
Publication
 
Author
Vines. R.A.
Publisher
University of Texas Press.
Year
1982
ISBN
0292780206
Description
A readable guide to the area, it contains descriptions of the plants and their habitats with quite a bit of information on plant uses.
].

Other Uses

A semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed by pressing. It can be used as a fuel for lighting, as a lubricant, for polishing wood etc[
12
Title
Britain's Wild Larder.
Publication
 
Author
Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P.
Publisher
David & Charles; Newton Abbot.
Year
 
ISBN
0-7153-7971-2
Description
A handy pocket guide.
,
13
Title
Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Triska. Dr.
Publisher
Hamlyn
Year
1975
ISBN
0-600-33545-3
Description
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.
,
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
57
Title
Plants for Man.
Publication
 
Author
Schery. R. W.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.
,
63
Title
Nuts.
Publication
 
Author
Howes. F. N.
Publisher
Faber
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
Rather old but still a masterpiece. Has sections on tropical and temperate plants with edible nuts plus a section on nut plants in Britain. Very readable.
,
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

The wood has a very high caloric value. On dry distillation it yields alcohol and creosote[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

The wood is heavy, hard, strong and highly resistant to shock. Thus, it is suitable for steam bending[
1195
Title
European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://www.euforgen.org/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
A series of information sheets about the woodland trees of Europe with an excellent depth of treatment. They can be downloaded from the Internet
]. A very good quality wood, it is widely used for a variety of purposes including bent (so-called Viennese) cabinet work, oars, shoe lasts, small articles for domestic use, spoons, trays, etc. It is also employed in boat construction (keels) and carriage construction (wheel spokes, etc.). Beech staves are made into containers for oil. For this purpose only so-called "white" beech is used, since "red" beech imparts to the oil a bitter taste and a dark colour. These differences in the wood are due to the formation of so-called false heartwood as a result of fungal infection. Such modified wood (normally no heartwood is produced) becomes permeated with tannic substances that bring about the darkening[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].
The wood is an excellent fuel, burning well and giving off a lot of heat.

Propagation

Seed - the seed has a short viability and is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Protect the seed from mice. Germination takes place in the spring. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. The seedlings are slow growing for the first few years and are very susceptible to damage by late frosts.
The seed can also be sown in an outdoor seedbed in the autumn. The seedlings can be left in the open ground for three years before transplanting, but do best if put into their final positions as soon as possible and given some protection from spring frosts.
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2018-08-20. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Fagus+orientalis>

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