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Useful Temperate Plants

Epimedium sagittatum

(Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim.

Berberidaceae

+ Synonyms

Aceranthus macrophyllus Blume ex K.Koch

Aceranthus sagittatus Siebold & Zucc.

Aceranthus triphyllus K.Koch

Epimedium ikariso Siebold ex Regel

Epimedium sinense Siebold ex Miq.

Common Name: Yin Yang Huo

No Image.

General Information

Epimedium sagittatum is a perennial plant growing from a short, stout, rhizomatous rootstock; the plant forns a compact cluster of growth around 30 - 70cm tall[
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
].
This is one of several species known as Yin Yang Huo in China and widely used in Chinese herbalism.to treat bone diseases and problems connected with the reproductive system. The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, medicine and source of materials. The popularity of this species in herbal treatment has led to a major overexploitation of the plant in the wild and it is now being cultivated on a large scale in order to satisfy the demand. The plant is also grown as an ornamental, where it makes an effective ground cover[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
,
1770
Title
Epimedium brevicornu Maxim. (Yinyanghuo, Barrenwort)
Publication
Y. Liu et al. (eds.), Dietary Chinese Herbs, DOI 10.1007/978-3-211-99448-1_69
Author
Li-Hua Yan
Website
http://10.1007/978-3-211-99448-1_69
Publisher
 
Year
2015
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
266
Title
Flora of China
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Publisher
Missouri Botanical Garden Press; St. Louis.
Year
1994
ISBN
 
Description
An excellent, comprehensive resource in 25 volumes. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. An on-line version is also available.
,
280
Title
The Genus Epimedium and other Herbaceous Berberidaceae
Publication
 
Author
Stearn. W. T.
Publisher
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Year
2002
ISBN
1 84246 039 0
Description
An excellent book covering all the herbaceous members of the Berberidaceae. Gives cultivation details as well as detailed botanical descriptions. Very well illustrated with photographs, paintings and line drawings.

Range

E. Asia - southern and eastern China.

Habitat

Hillsides in damp shady bamboo groves or in cliff crevices[
147
Title
A Barefoot Doctors Manual.
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Running Press; Philadelphica.
Year
1977
ISBN
0-914294-92-X
Description
A very readable herbal from China, combining some modern methods with traditional chinese methods.
]. Moist woodlands[
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *  *
HabitPerennial
Height0.50 m
PollinatorsBees
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Epimedium sagittatum is a fairly cold-hardy plant, able to tolerate temperatures down to at least -15°c when fully dormant, although the young growth in spring is much more tender and can be killed by frosts[
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
].
Succeeds in any fertile humus-rich soil[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
], preferring a moist but well-drained peaty loam[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
,
280
Title
The Genus Epimedium and other Herbaceous Berberidaceae
Publication
 
Author
Stearn. W. T.
Publisher
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Year
2002
ISBN
1 84246 039 0
Description
An excellent book covering all the herbaceous members of the Berberidaceae. Gives cultivation details as well as detailed botanical descriptions. Very well illustrated with photographs, paintings and line drawings.
]. Grows best in the light dappled shade of a woodland[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
280
Title
The Genus Epimedium and other Herbaceous Berberidaceae
Publication
 
Author
Stearn. W. T.
Publisher
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Year
2002
ISBN
1 84246 039 0
Description
An excellent book covering all the herbaceous members of the Berberidaceae. Gives cultivation details as well as detailed botanical descriptions. Very well illustrated with photographs, paintings and line drawings.
]. Plants can succeed in the dry shade of trees[
233
Title
Perennial Garden Plants
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
J. M. Dent & Sons, London.
Year
1990
ISBN
0 460 86048 8
Description
A concise guide to a wide range of perennials. Lots of cultivation guides, very little on plant uses.
]. A shallow-rooting plant, the rhizomes creeping just below the soil and the finer roots occupying the top 30cm of the soil[
280
Title
The Genus Epimedium and other Herbaceous Berberidaceae
Publication
 
Author
Stearn. W. T.
Publisher
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Year
2002
ISBN
1 84246 039 0
Description
An excellent book covering all the herbaceous members of the Berberidaceae. Gives cultivation details as well as detailed botanical descriptions. Very well illustrated with photographs, paintings and line drawings.
].
Grows well in the rock garden or wild garden[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
].
Plants are self-sterile and so more than one clone is required for cross-fertilization in order for seed to be produced. Plants will often hybridise with other species growing nearby[
280
Title
The Genus Epimedium and other Herbaceous Berberidaceae
Publication
 
Author
Stearn. W. T.
Publisher
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Year
2002
ISBN
1 84246 039 0
Description
An excellent book covering all the herbaceous members of the Berberidaceae. Gives cultivation details as well as detailed botanical descriptions. Very well illustrated with photographs, paintings and line drawings.
].
Cultivated as a medicinal plant in Japan[
58
Title
Flora of Japan. (English translation)
Publication
 
Author
Ohwi. G.
Publisher
Smithsonian Institution
Year
1965
ISBN
-
Description
The standard work. Brilliant, but not for the casual reader.
].
Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or rabbits[
233
Title
Perennial Garden Plants
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
J. M. Dent & Sons, London.
Year
1990
ISBN
0 460 86048 8
Description
A concise guide to a wide range of perennials. Lots of cultivation guides, very little on plant uses.
].

Edible Uses

Young plant and young leaves - cooked[
105
Title
Tanaka's Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Tanaka. T. & Nakao S.
Publisher
Keigaku Publishing; Tokyo
Year
1976
ISBN
-
Description
The most comprehensive list of edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
]. Soaked and then boiled[
177
Title
Plants for Human Consumption.
Publication
 
Author
Kunkel. G.
Publisher
Koeltz Scientific Books
Year
1984
ISBN
3874292169
Description
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
]. The leaves are highly valued in China for their medicinal actions and so are added to foods such as soups in order to add their positive properties to the food[
1770
Title
Epimedium brevicornu Maxim. (Yinyanghuo, Barrenwort)
Publication
Y. Liu et al. (eds.), Dietary Chinese Herbs, DOI 10.1007/978-3-211-99448-1_69
Author
Li-Hua Yan
Website
http://10.1007/978-3-211-99448-1_69
Publisher
 
Year
2015
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

Medicinal

The whole plant is antirheumatic, aphrodisiac, carminative, expectorant, ophthalmic and vasodilator. Used as a kidney tonic, it also treats sterility and barrenness[
147
Title
A Barefoot Doctors Manual.
Publication
 
Author
?
Publisher
Running Press; Philadelphica.
Year
1977
ISBN
0-914294-92-X
Description
A very readable herbal from China, combining some modern methods with traditional chinese methods.
,
178
Title
Chinese Materia Medica.
Publication
 
Author
Stuart. Rev. G. A.
Publisher
Taipei. Southern Materials Centre
Year
1911
ISBN
-
Description
A translation of an ancient Chinese herbal. Fascinating.
,
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
]. It is taken internally in the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, cold or numb extremities, arthritis, lumbago, impotence, involuntary and premature ejaculation, high blood pressure and absentmindedness[
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
].
The plant is harvested in the growing season and dried for later use[
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
].
This remedy should be used with some caution since in excess it can cause vomiting, dizziness, thirst and nosebleeds[
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
].

This is one of several species known as Yin Yang Huo and commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of bone diseases, pregnancy, and gonad dysfunction[
1769
Title
Therapeutic Anabolic and Anticatabolic Benefits of Natural Chinese Medicines for the Treatment of Osteoporosis
Publication
Front. Pharmacol. 10:1344. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01344
Author
He J., Li X., Wang Z. et al
Website
http://10.3389/fphar.2019.01344
Publisher
 
Year
2019
ISBN
 
Description
 
,
1770
Title
Epimedium brevicornu Maxim. (Yinyanghuo, Barrenwort)
Publication
Y. Liu et al. (eds.), Dietary Chinese Herbs, DOI 10.1007/978-3-211-99448-1_69
Author
Li-Hua Yan
Website
http://10.1007/978-3-211-99448-1_69
Publisher
 
Year
2015
ISBN
 
Description
 
]. It is often used on its own, and is also a component in many traditional multi-herbal preparations[
1770
Title
Epimedium brevicornu Maxim. (Yinyanghuo, Barrenwort)
Publication
Y. Liu et al. (eds.), Dietary Chinese Herbs, DOI 10.1007/978-3-211-99448-1_69
Author
Li-Hua Yan
Website
http://10.1007/978-3-211-99448-1_69
Publisher
 
Year
2015
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

The aerial parts of the plant are antiasthmatic, antibacterial, antirheumatic, antitussive, aphrodisiac, hypoglycaemic, tonic and vasodilator. Its use lowers blood sugar levels[
116
Title
Oriental Herbs and Vegetables, Vol 39 No. 2.
Publication
 
Author
Brooklyn Botanic Garden
Publisher
Brooklyn Botanic Garden
Year
1986
ISBN
-
Description
A small booklet packed with information.
,
176
Title
Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas.
Publication
 
Author
Yeung. Him-Che.
Publisher
Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles
Year
1985
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent Chinese herbal giving information on over 500 species. Rather technical and probably best suited to the more accomplished user of herbs.
]. The plant is used in the treatment of impotence, seminal emissions, lumbago, arthritis, numbness and weakness of the limbs, hypertension and chronic bronchitis[
176
Title
Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas.
Publication
 
Author
Yeung. Him-Che.
Publisher
Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles
Year
1985
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent Chinese herbal giving information on over 500 species. Rather technical and probably best suited to the more accomplished user of herbs.
].

The leaves are harvested summer and early autumn, when the vegetation at its greatest abundance, then cleaned and dried in the sun[
1770
Title
Epimedium brevicornu Maxim. (Yinyanghuo, Barrenwort)
Publication
Y. Liu et al. (eds.), Dietary Chinese Herbs, DOI 10.1007/978-3-211-99448-1_69
Author
Li-Hua Yan
Website
http://10.1007/978-3-211-99448-1_69
Publisher
 
Year
2015
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

The plant has an action on the genitals similar to testosterone, and can increase the weight of the prostate gland and seminal vesicle - it has increased copulation in animals and increases the secretion of semen[
176
Title
Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas.
Publication
 
Author
Yeung. Him-Che.
Publisher
Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles
Year
1985
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent Chinese herbal giving information on over 500 species. Rather technical and probably best suited to the more accomplished user of herbs.
].
The plant has been shown to have a positive action upon postmenopausal symptoms and inhibit osteoporosis and other bone loss diseases, while few hyperplastic effects on the uterus were found[
1769
Title
Therapeutic Anabolic and Anticatabolic Benefits of Natural Chinese Medicines for the Treatment of Osteoporosis
Publication
Front. Pharmacol. 10:1344. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01344
Author
He J., Li X., Wang Z. et al
Website
http://10.3389/fphar.2019.01344
Publisher
 
Year
2019
ISBN
 
Description
 
,
1770
Title
Epimedium brevicornu Maxim. (Yinyanghuo, Barrenwort)
Publication
Y. Liu et al. (eds.), Dietary Chinese Herbs, DOI 10.1007/978-3-211-99448-1_69
Author
Li-Hua Yan
Website
http://10.1007/978-3-211-99448-1_69
Publisher
 
Year
2015
ISBN
 
Description
 
]. These antiosteoporotic effects may be related with the oestrogenic properties by the intrinsic phytoestrogens including some of the flavonoids, lignans, sterols, etc[
1769
Title
Therapeutic Anabolic and Anticatabolic Benefits of Natural Chinese Medicines for the Treatment of Osteoporosis
Publication
Front. Pharmacol. 10:1344. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01344
Author
He J., Li X., Wang Z. et al
Website
http://10.3389/fphar.2019.01344
Publisher
 
Year
2019
ISBN
 
Description
 
]
In the systems pharmacology study, there are 77 components in Epimedium possessing the analogous structure to oestrogen. Many of these phytoestrogenic compounds have the beneficial effects to inhibit osteoporosis, including icariin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariside II and icaritin, epimedoside C, baohuoside I, baohuoside II, etc[
1769
Title
Therapeutic Anabolic and Anticatabolic Benefits of Natural Chinese Medicines for the Treatment of Osteoporosis
Publication
Front. Pharmacol. 10:1344. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01344
Author
He J., Li X., Wang Z. et al
Website
http://10.3389/fphar.2019.01344
Publisher
 
Year
2019
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

Agroforestry Uses:

A good ground cover plant[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

Other Uses

An extract of the whole plant is used as an ingredient in commercial cosmetic preparations as a skin conditioner[
1243
Title
CosIng
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/cosing/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
CosIng is the European Commission database for information on cosmetic substances and ingredients.
].
An extract of the leaves and stems is used as an ingredient in commercial cosmetic preparations as an antioxidant and flavouring[
1243
Title
CosIng
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/cosing/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
CosIng is the European Commission database for information on cosmetic substances and ingredients.
].

Propagation

Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in late summer[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
,
280
Title
The Genus Epimedium and other Herbaceous Berberidaceae
Publication
 
Author
Stearn. W. T.
Publisher
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Year
2002
ISBN
1 84246 039 0
Description
An excellent book covering all the herbaceous members of the Berberidaceae. Gives cultivation details as well as detailed botanical descriptions. Very well illustrated with photographs, paintings and line drawings.
]. Sow stored seed as early as possible in the year in a cold frame. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in light shade in the cold frame or greenhouse for at least their first winter[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]. Plant them out in mid to late summer[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].
Division is best carried out in late summer according to one report[
280
Title
The Genus Epimedium and other Herbaceous Berberidaceae
Publication
 
Author
Stearn. W. T.
Publisher
The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Year
2002
ISBN
1 84246 039 0
Description
An excellent book covering all the herbaceous members of the Berberidaceae. Gives cultivation details as well as detailed botanical descriptions. Very well illustrated with photographs, paintings and line drawings.
], in late spring according to another[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.
Cuttings in late summer[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2022-08-17. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Epimedium+sagittatum>

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