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Useful Temperate Plants

Cistus ladanifer

L.

Cistaceae

+ Synonyms

Cistus grandiflorus Pourr. ex Willk. & Lange

Cistus ladaniferus immaculatus Dans.

Cistus ladanosma Hoffmanns

Cistus viscosus Stokes

Common Name: Labdanum

No Image.

General Information

Cistus ladanifer is an evergreen shrub of erect, thin habit; it can grow 90 - 150cm tall. The branches are very clammy with a shining resin, especially in hot weather[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
].
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and a medicine, and also on a commercial basis for its fragrant gum. It is sometimes cultivated for this gum and is also often grown as an ornamental[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
].

Known Hazards

None known

Botanical References

11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
89
Title
Flowers of the Mediterranean.
Publication
 
Author
Polunin. O. and Huxley. A.
Publisher
Hogarth Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0-7012-0784-1
Description
A very readable pocket flora that is well illustrated. Gives some information on plant uses.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

Range

Western Mediterranean - Portugal, Spain, France, Morocco, Algeria

Habitat

Pine woods, copses and on dry usually granitic hills[
89
Title
Flowers of the Mediterranean.
Publication
 
Author
Polunin. O. and Huxley. A.
Publisher
Hogarth Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0-7012-0784-1
Description
A very readable pocket flora that is well illustrated. Gives some information on plant uses.
,
184
Title
Shrubs.
Publication
 
Author
Phillips. R. & Rix. M.
Publisher
Pan Books
Year
1989
ISBN
0-330-30258-2
Description
Excellent photographs and a terse description of 1,900 species and cultivars.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *  *
HabitEvergreen Shrub
Height1.00 m
Growth RateFast
PollinatorsBees
Self-fertileYes
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Ornamental, Wild

Cultivation Details

Cistus ladanifer is native to the Mediterranean region, with its hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. It is not very hardy outside the milder regions of the temperate zone, though this is one of the hardiest species in the genus and can tolerate winter temperatures dipping occasionally to between -10 and -20°c so long as the soil is fairly dry[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
184
Title
Shrubs.
Publication
 
Author
Phillips. R. & Rix. M.
Publisher
Pan Books
Year
1989
ISBN
0-330-30258-2
Description
Excellent photographs and a terse description of 1,900 species and cultivars.
]. A covering of bracken or leafy branches in severe weather is a help, and will often save plants that would otherwise perish[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
]. Plants are also somewhat hardier when grown in poor soils[
182
Title
Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7195-5043-2
Description
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
].
Cistus species generally grow best in a sunny position in a well-drained light sandy soil[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
182
Title
Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7195-5043-2
Description
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
]. Established plants are very drought tolerant[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
190
Title
The Dry Garden.
Publication
 
Author
Chatto. B.
Publisher
Dent
Year
1982
ISBN
0460045512
Description
A good list of drought resistant plants with details on how to grow them.
]. This species grows well in poor soils[
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
], and is fairly wind resistant, tolerating maritime exposure[
188
Title
The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers
Publication
 
Author
Brickell. C.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd.
Year
1990
ISBN
0-86318-386-7
Description
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.
].
This species is sometimes cultivated for its fragrant gum, especially in Corsica and experimentally in California[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
]. This is known as 'Ladanum' (or labdanum), and is used in perfumery and medicinally. The gum can be exuded in such quantity in hot weather that the plant becomes very sticky[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
61
Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
]. The leaves have glandular hairs which produce an aromatic gum. The sweet balsamic smell is most apparent in the summer in the early morning[
245
Title
Scented Flora of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Genders. R.
Publisher
Robert Hale. London.
Year
1994
ISBN
0-7090-5440-8
Description
An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.
].
A very ornamental plant, it is very free-flowering and fast growing[
49
Title
Shrubs for the Milder Counties.
Publication
 
Author
Arnold-Forster.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
Trees and shrubs that grow well in Cornwall and other mild areas of Britain. Fairly good, a standard reference book.
]. There are a number of named forms developed for their ornamental value[
182
Title
Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7195-5043-2
Description
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
].
Plants are apt to be short-lived[
182
Title
Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7195-5043-2
Description
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
].
Individual flowers only last one day but there is a long succession of them[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
The flowers are very attractive to bees[
108
Title
Garden Plants Valuable to Bees.
Publication
 
Author
International Bee Research Association.
Publisher
International Bee Research Association.
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
The title says it all.
].
This is an excellent nurse plant for sheltering young seedlings[
49
Title
Shrubs for the Milder Counties.
Publication
 
Author
Arnold-Forster.
Publisher
 
Year
 
ISBN
 
Description
Trees and shrubs that grow well in Cornwall and other mild areas of Britain. Fairly good, a standard reference book.
].
Labdanum dislikes pruning, especially as it gets older, and so any formative work should be restricted to removing dead, straggly or damaged growths[
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
].
Plants are resentful of root disturbance[
182
Title
Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Publication
 
Author
Thomas. G. S.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1992
ISBN
0-7195-5043-2
Description
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. They should be pot grown and then planted out in their final positions whilst still small[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
In cultivation, Cistus species will often hybridize freely with other members of the genus[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].
Cistus species form ectomychorrizal roots, developing symbiotic relationships with various mychorrizal fungal species, mainly belonging to the genus Lactarius[
1272
Title
Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes’ biosynthesis and a natural source of high value produ
Publication
Frontiers in Chemistry Vol 2, Article 35, June 2014
Author
Dimitra Papaefthimiou, Antigoni Papanilkolaou et al
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
 
Description
 
]. This relationship aids the plants in water and nutrient uptake often helping the host plant to survive adverse conditions whilst, in exchange, the fungal symbiont is provided with access to carbohydrates.

Edible Uses

Seed - ground into a powder and used with cereal flours in making cakes and breads[
177
Title
Plants for Human Consumption.
Publication
 
Author
Kunkel. G.
Publisher
Koeltz Scientific Books
Year
1984
ISBN
3874292169
Description
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
,
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
].

An oleo-resin obtained from the leaves and stems is eaten raw or used as a commercial food flavouring in baked goods, ice cream, chewing gum etc[
2
Title
Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Hedrick. U. P.
Publisher
Dover Publications
Year
1972
ISBN
0-486-20459-6
Description
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
,
105
Title
Tanaka's Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World.
Publication
 
Author
Tanaka. T. & Nakao S.
Publisher
Keigaku Publishing; Tokyo
Year
1976
ISBN
-
Description
The most comprehensive list of edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
,
177
Title
Plants for Human Consumption.
Publication
 
Author
Kunkel. G.
Publisher
Koeltz Scientific Books
Year
1984
ISBN
3874292169
Description
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of Latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
,
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
,
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
].

The plant is said to yield a sweet manna[
183
Title
Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Facciola. S.
Publisher
Kampong Publications
Year
1990
ISBN
0-9628087-0-9
Description
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
].This report is probably referring to the oleo-resin mentioned above[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

Medicinal

Labdanum is an aromatic, expectorant, stimulant herb that controls bleeding and has antibiotic effects[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
]. It is used internally in the treatment of catarrh and diarrhoea[
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
] and as an emmenagogue[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
].
The leaves are harvested in late spring and early summer and can be dried for later use, or the resin extracted from them[
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
].

Research has shown that Cistus species contain a wealth of medicinally active compounds such as terpenoids (including diterpenes, labdane-type diterpenes and clerodanes); phenylpropanoids (including flavonoids and ellagitannins); several groups of alkaloids; and other types of secondary metabolites[
1272
Title
Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes’ biosynthesis and a natural source of high value produ
Publication
Frontiers in Chemistry Vol 2, Article 35, June 2014
Author
Dimitra Papaefthimiou, Antigoni Papanilkolaou et al
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
Considerable research has been carried out into the properties of these compounds - the following are some that apply to this species
Cistus ladanifer aqueous extracts had antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli[
1272
Title
Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes’ biosynthesis and a natural source of high value produ
Publication
Frontiers in Chemistry Vol 2, Article 35, June 2014
Author
Dimitra Papaefthimiou, Antigoni Papanilkolaou et al
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
Phenolic compounds present in extracts from Cistus ladanifer aerial tissues have been shown to have antifungal activity against Candida species in a dose-dependent manner[
1272
Title
Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes’ biosynthesis and a natural source of high value produ
Publication
Frontiers in Chemistry Vol 2, Article 35, June 2014
Author
Dimitra Papaefthimiou, Antigoni Papanilkolaou et al
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
A strong antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated for this plant[
1272
Title
Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes’ biosynthesis and a natural source of high value produ
Publication
Frontiers in Chemistry Vol 2, Article 35, June 2014
Author
Dimitra Papaefthimiou, Antigoni Papanilkolaou et al
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
Extracts of the plant have been shown to inhibit the replication of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)[
1272
Title
Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes’ biosynthesis and a natural source of high value produ
Publication
Frontiers in Chemistry Vol 2, Article 35, June 2014
Author
Dimitra Papaefthimiou, Antigoni Papanilkolaou et al
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
 
Description
 
]
A significant, dose-dependent spasmolytic and analgesic effects has been demonstrated for aqueous extracts of this plant[
1272
Title
Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes’ biosynthesis and a natural source of high value produ
Publication
Frontiers in Chemistry Vol 2, Article 35, June 2014
Author
Dimitra Papaefthimiou, Antigoni Papanilkolaou et al
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
Preparations of Cistus ladanifer aqueous extracts were able to generate strong antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner, using several free radical scavenging methods[
1272
Title
Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes’ biosynthesis and a natural source of high value produ
Publication
Frontiers in Chemistry Vol 2, Article 35, June 2014
Author
Dimitra Papaefthimiou, Antigoni Papanilkolaou et al
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
The resin, ladanum, secreted by the glandular trichomes of this species, contains a number of phytochemicals with antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties[
1272
Title
Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes’ biosynthesis and a natural source of high value produ
Publication
Frontiers in Chemistry Vol 2, Article 35, June 2014
Author
Dimitra Papaefthimiou, Antigoni Papanilkolaou et al
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

Other Uses

The glandular hairs on the leaves yield the oleo-resin 'ladanum', used medicinally and in soaps, perfumery, fumigation etc, and as an incense[
4
Title
A Modern Herbal.
Publication
 
Author
Grieve.
Publisher
Penguin
Year
1984
ISBN
0-14-046-440-9
Description
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
,
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
,
61
Title
A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man.
Publication
 
Author
Usher. G.
Publisher
Constable
Year
1974
ISBN
0094579202
Description
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
,
64
Title
Vegetable Gums and Resins.
Publication
 
Author
Howes. F. N.
Publisher
Faber
Year
 
ISBN
81-88818-17-8
Description
A very good book dealing with the subject in a readable way.
,
89
Title
Flowers of the Mediterranean.
Publication
 
Author
Polunin. O. and Huxley. A.
Publisher
Hogarth Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0-7012-0784-1
Description
A very readable pocket flora that is well illustrated. Gives some information on plant uses.
,
100
Title
Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide.
Publication
 
Author
Polunin. O.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1969
ISBN
0192176218
Description
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
,
1272
Title
Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes’ biosynthesis and a natural source of high value produ
Publication
Frontiers in Chemistry Vol 2, Article 35, June 2014
Author
Dimitra Papaefthimiou, Antigoni Papanilkolaou et al
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
 
Description
 
]. This resin is an acceptable substitute for ambergris (which is obtained from the sperm whale) and so is important in perfume manufacture[
238
Title
Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses.
Publication
 
Author
Bown. D.
Publisher
Dorling Kindersley, London.
Year
1995
ISBN
0-7513-020-31
Description
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
]. The resin is collected by dragging a type of rake through the plant, the resin adhering to the teeth of the rake, or by boiling the twigs and skimming off the resin[
64
Title
Vegetable Gums and Resins.
Publication
 
Author
Howes. F. N.
Publisher
Faber
Year
 
ISBN
81-88818-17-8
Description
A very good book dealing with the subject in a readable way.
,
89
Title
Flowers of the Mediterranean.
Publication
 
Author
Polunin. O. and Huxley. A.
Publisher
Hogarth Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0-7012-0784-1
Description
A very readable pocket flora that is well illustrated. Gives some information on plant uses.
]. Most resin is produced at the hottest time of the year[
46
Title
Dictionary of Economic Plants.
Publication
 
Author
Uphof. J. C. Th.
Publisher
Weinheim
Year
1959
ISBN
-
Description
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
].

The fragrant gum is used as an ingredient in various cosmetic preparations for perfumery, skin conditioners, humectants, astringents, emollients etc[
1243
Title
CosIng
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/cosing/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
CosIng is the European Commission database for information on cosmetic substances and ingredients.
].

Propagation

Seed - gather when ripe and store dry[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. Surface sow in late winter in a greenhouse[
164
Title
Growing from Seed. Volume 4.
Publication
 
Author
Bird. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Thompson and Morgan.
Year
1990
ISBN
-
Description
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good article on Yuccas, one on Sagebrush (Artemesia spp) and another on Chaerophyllum bulbosum.
]. The seed usually germinates in 1 - 4 weeks at 20°c[
164
Title
Growing from Seed. Volume 4.
Publication
 
Author
Bird. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Thompson and Morgan.
Year
1990
ISBN
-
Description
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good article on Yuccas, one on Sagebrush (Artemesia spp) and another on Chaerophyllum bulbosum.
]. Seeds in the wild are more likely to germinate following a forest fire[
1272
Title
Genus Cistus: a model for exploring labdane-type diterpenes’ biosynthesis and a natural source of high value produ
Publication
Frontiers in Chemistry Vol 2, Article 35, June 2014
Author
Dimitra Papaefthimiou, Antigoni Papanilkolaou et al
Publisher
 
Year
2014
ISBN
 
Description
 
], so it could be worth giving the seedlings heat treatment by placing a small amount of fast-burning flammable material on top of them and then allowing it to burn for perhaps 20 - 30 seconds[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]. Prick out the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle into individual pots. Grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter and plant them out the in the following spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts[
164
Title
Growing from Seed. Volume 4.
Publication
 
Author
Bird. R. (Editor)
Publisher
Thompson and Morgan.
Year
1990
ISBN
-
Description
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good article on Yuccas, one on Sagebrush (Artemesia spp) and another on Chaerophyllum bulbosum.
]. The seed stores for at least 3 years[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].
Cuttings of softish to half-ripe wood, 8cm long with a heel or at a node, early to late summer in a frame. Roots are formed within 3 weeks[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. High percentage[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Cuttings of almost mature wood, 8 - 12cm with a heel or at a node, early to mid autumn in a frame. High percentage[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. Lift and pot up in the spring, plant out when a good root system has formed[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Layering in spring.
Cite as: Temperate Plants Database, Ken Fern. temperate.theferns.info. 2018-12-15. <temperate.theferns.info/plant/Cistus+ladanifer>

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