Celtis americana Planch.
Celtis fuscata Raf.
Celtis georgiana Small
Celtis grandidentata Ten.
Celtis laevigata smallii (Beadle) Sarg.
Celtis longifolia Raf.
Celtis mississippiensis Bosc
Celtis occidentalis georgiana (Small) H.E.Ahles
Celtis occidentalis grandidentata (Ten.) Dippel
Celtis occidentalis tenuifolia (Nutt.) A.E.Murray
Celtis pumila georgiana (Small) Sarg.
Celtis salicifolia Raf.
Celtis smallii Beadle
Common Name: Small Hackberry
Celtis tenuifolia is a deciduous shrub or a small tree with a narrow crown; it can grow up to 10 metres tall. The bole can be up to 35cm in diameter, usually branching near the ground]270,
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and a source of materials. It is sometimes grown as an ornamental.
Southeastern N. America - Kansas to southern Ontario and New Jersey, south to eastern Texas and northern Florida.
Dry rocky or gravelly soils in foothills and bluffs[
]. On slopes and along streams in open woods; at elevations from sea level to 500 metres[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Ornamental, Wild
Celtis tenuifolia can be very cold-hardy when growing in hot summer areas, able to tolerate temperatures falling to at least -15°c[
]. However, Celtis species generally prefer hotter summers and more sunlight than are normally experienced in maritime regions of the temperate zone. In areas with cooler summers the plants often do not fully ripen their wood and are then very subject to die-back in the winter[
Succeeds in any reasonably good soil, preferring a good fertile well-drained loamy soil[
]. Succeeds on dry gravels and on sandy soils[
]. Established plants are very drought resistant[
Sometimes grown as an ornamental[
This species is very closely related to Celtis occidentalis, and it is considered to be no more than a sub-species by many authorities[
A slow-growing tree[
], but it can be very long-lived, perhaps surviving for 1,000 years in the wild[
The various N. American Celtis species provide an important wildlife habitat, forming thickets that give shelter and fleshy drupes that ripen in autumn, persist after the leaves fall, and supply winter food for birds and mammals[
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[
Fruit - raw. Sweet but thin fleshed[
]. The thin flesh has a sweet, mealy pleasant taste[
]. The orange to brown or cherry-red, orbicular fruit is 5 - 10mm in diameter, with a single large seed[
]. The trees often produce large crops of fruit in Britain, but there is so little that is edible on each fruit that it is scarcely worthwhile[
The heartwood of N. American Celtis species is a yellowish gray brown to light brown; the sapwood is pale yellow to grayish or greenish yellow. The wood is straight and close-grained, moderately hard, strong in bending, but weak in compression[
]. It also has high shock resistance, but lacks stiffness. The wood planes and turns well. It is intermediate in its ability to hold nails and screws. It resists splitting from screws better than from nails; glueing properties are excellent[
]. When of suitable dimensions, it can be used for making furniture, millwork, sporting and athletic goods, boxes and crates, veneer and plywood[
The wood is very tough, pliable and durable. Sometimes used locally, it is of nf no commercial value because of its usually small size[
]. The flexible thin shoots are used as walking sticks, the wood is also an excellent fuel.
We have no further specific information for this species, but most species in this genus yield a fine timber; their fibre-rich bark is utilized for the manufacture of ropes and paper; and an oil obtained from the seed is used for making soaps and lubricants[
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[
]. Stored seed is best given 2 - 3 months cold stratification and then sown late winter/early spring in a greenhouse[
]. Germination rates are usually good, though the stored seed might take 12 months or more to germinate. The seed can be stored for up to 5 years[
]. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots. The leaves of seedlings often have a lot of white patches without chlorophyll, this is normal and older plants produce normal green leaves. Grow the seedlings on in a cold frame for their first winter, and plant them out in the following late spring or early summer[
]. Give them some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors.