Bupleurum alpinum Nyman
Bupleurum angustifolium Pall.
Bupleurum antiochium Post
Bupleurum baldense oeneum (Boiss. & A.Huet) Boiss.
Bupleurum baldense olympicum (Boiss.) Boiss.
Bupleurum banaticum Kotschy ex H.Wolff
Bupleurum brassicifolium Arv.-Touv.
Bupleurum cernuum Ten.
Bupleurum chlorocarpum Timb.-Lagr. & Jeanb.
Bupleurum corsicum Coss. & Kralik
Bupleurum cuspidatum Bunge
Bupleurum czimganicum Lincz.
Bupleurum dilatatum Schur
Bupleurum diversifolium Rochel
Bupleurum exaltatum M.Bieb.
Bupleurum exaltatum Schur
Bupleurum flexuosum Moench
Bupleurum graminifolium Georgi
Bupleurum irregulare Boiss. & Kotschy
Bupleurum kotschyanum Boiss.
Bupleurum linearifolium DC.
Bupleurum lipskyanum (Koso-Pol.) Lincz.
Bupleurum neglectum Ces.
Bupleurum nervosum Boiss. & Buhse
Bupleurum nordmannianum Balansa ex Boiss.
Bupleurum nordmannianum Ledeb.
Bupleurum obtusifolium Ten.
Bupleurum occidentale Manden.
Bupleurum oeneum Boiss. & A.Huet
Bupleurum olympicum Boiss.
Bupleurum oppositifolium Lapeyr.
Bupleurum orbelicum Velen.
Bupleurum parnassicum Halácsy
Bupleurum persicum Boiss.
Bupleurum petiolare Lapeyr.
Bupleurum petrogenes Jord. ex Nyman
Bupleurum polymorphum Albov
Bupleurum polyphyllum Ledeb.
Bupleurum ranunculoides souliaei Coste
Bupleurum rigidum petiolare (Lapeyr.) Roem. & Schult.
Bupleurum rossicum (Koso-Pol.) Woronow
Bupleurum saxatile Pall.
Bupleurum schimperi Boiss.
Bupleurum sibthorpianum Sm.
Bupleurum sosnowskyi Manden
Bupleurum souliaei Calest.
Bupleurum speciosissimum Rech.f.
Bupleurum subfalcatum Schur
Bupleurum subnivale (Galushko) Galushko
Bupleurum tenuifolium Pourr. ex Nyman
Bupleurum transsilvanicum Schur
Bupleurum vvedenskyi Manden.
Bupleurum woronowii Manden.
Isophyllum falcatum Hoffm.
Selinum bupleurum E.H.L.Krause
Tenoria falcata Bubani
Common Name: Thorow-Wax
Bupleurum falcatum is a herbaceous, perennial plant producing a large cluster of erect stems that branch above; the plant grows 40 - 90cm tall from a stout, woody taproot[
The plant is harvested from the wild, mainly for medicinal use but also for food. It is sold in local markets for medicinal use.
Scattered throughout Europe, including Britain, and Asia north to the subarctic, east to Japan.
Waste places and hedgebanks[
]. Mountain slopes at elevations around 1,500 metres in western China[
]. Slopes, especially calcareous, shrubs, rarely in forests[
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An easily cultivated plant[
], it succeeds in a sunny position in most fertile well-drained soils[
Leaves and young shoots - cooked[
].The new growth in spring and autumn is used[
, 179]. It is a good source of rutin[
According to the Flora of China[
] there are around 180 accepted species of Bupleurum (as of 2013) of which 42 species (22 of them endemic) are found in China. Most, if not all of these Chinese species are used medicinally, with two of them (Bupleurum chinense and Bupleurum scorzonerifolium being some of the most important and widely used herbs in Chinese Herbal medicine[
Other species in the genus also have medicinal potential. The roots of Bupleurum species in general contain a range of medicinally active compounds including saponins, sterols, lignans, flavonoids, coumarins, polysaccharides and essential oils[
Traditionally the root is used to regulate the metabolism, for the treatment of fever, pain and inflammation associated with influenza and the common cold. In addition, Bupleurum species are also used as analgesics in the treatment of distending pain in the hypochondriac region of the upper abdomen and against amenorrhoea. Many Bupleuri extracts have been used for improvement and protection against chronic hepatitis, nephrotic syndrome and autoimmune diseases[
Recorded below are the specific medicinal uses we have come across for this species. Many of the Bupleurum species not included in the database are likely to also have a range of potential applications[
A paste of the plant is applied to boils[
A tincture of the leaves has been used in the treatment of wounds74].
The stem and leaves contain glucoside rutin (rutoside)[
The root is anaesthetic, antiinflammatory, febrifuge, hepatic and sedative[
]. It is used in the treatment of fevers, hepatitis and apoplexy[
The juice of the roots, mixed with the juice of Centella asiatica, is used in the treatment of liver diseases[
This species is closely related to Bupleurum chinense and quite possibly has the same uses. It is certainly worthy of some research. The uses of Bupleurum chinense are as follows:-
Bei chai hu root has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for at least 2,000 years[
]. It is a bitter herb that is used to harmonize the body, balancing the different organs and energies within the body[
]. It strengthens the digestive tract, acts as a tonic for the liver and circulatory system, lowers fevers and has anti-viral effects[
The root is alterative, analgesic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiperiodic, antipyretic, antiviral, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, haemolytic, hepatic, pectoral, sedative[
, 174. 176,
]. It is taken internally in the treatment of malaria, blackwater fever, uterine and rectal prolapse, haemorrhoids, sluggish liver, menstrual disorders, abdominal bloating etc[
]. The roots are harvested in the autumn and can be used fresh or dried[
The root contains saikosides[
]. These saponin-like substances have been shown to protect the liver from toxicity whilst also strengthening its function, even in people with immune system disorders[
]. These saikosides also stimulate the body's production of corticosteroids and increase their anti-inflammatory affect[
The plant is often used in preparations with other herbs to treat the side effects of steroids[
The old plant is used as a fuel[
Seed - sow spring in a cold frame. The seed usually germinates in 2 - 8 weeks at 15°c[
]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer or following spring.
Division in spring. Very easy, larger clumps can be planted direct into their permanent positions. It is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are well rooted before planting them out in the summer.