We are following the treatment in the online database 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families'. However, some new treatments view this species in a looser sense as comprised of two vars;- Bromus carinatus var carinatus and Bromus carinatus var marginatus (which is treated here as a distinct species Bromus marginatus)[
Bromus californicus Nutt. ex Buckley
Bromus compressus Lag.
Bromus hookeri pendulinus (Spreng.) E.Fourn.
Bromus hookeri schaffneri E.Fourn.
Bromus hookeri schlechtendalii E.Fourn.
Bromus hookerianus Thurb.
Bromus laciniatus Beal
Bromus luzonensis J.Presl
Bromus nitens Nutt. ex A.Gray
Bromus oregonus Shear
Bromus pendulinus Sessé ex Lag.
Bromus proximus schlechtendalii (E.Fourn.) Shear
Bromus schaffneri (E.Fourn.) Scribn. & Merr.
Bromus subvelutinus Shear
Bromus virens Buckley
Bromus virens minor Scribn. ex Beal
Ceratochloa carinata (Hook. & Arn.) Tutin
Ceratochloa grandiflora Hook.
Ceratochloa laciniata (Beal) Holub
Festuca pendulina Spreng.
Stipa virletii E.Fourn.
Trisetum luzonense (J.Presl) Steud.
Triticum luzonense (J.Presl) Kunth
Common Name: Californian Brome
Bromus carinatus is an erect, annual to biennial or short-lived perennial grass growing 40 - 50cm tall266].
The plant is sometimes harvested from the wild for local use as a food.
The long, sharp-awned fruits can be very dangerous if swallowed[
Western N. America - British Columbia to California, Baja California and New Mexico.
Various habitats from moist woods to dry open meadows or sagebrush covered hills, sometimes to the timber line[
]. Found naturalized along the Thames at Kew and Oxford[
Bromus carinatus is a plant of the temperate zone, where it is found at elevations up to 1,500 metres. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 10 - 18°c, but can tolerate 2 - 22°c[
]. When dormant, the plant can survive temperatures down to about -5°c, but young growth can be severely damaged at -1°c[
]. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 500 - 900mm, but tolerates 350 - 1,100mm[
Succeeds in a sunny position in most well-drained soils[
]. Prefers a pH in the range 6 - 7, tolerating 5.5 - 7.5[
A potential perennial cereal crop, it is able to survive summer droughts without needing irrigation[
The plant has cleistogamous flowers - these do not open in the usual way but are self-pollinated by the plant.
Seed - cooked[
]. Used as a piñole[
].The dried seed can be ground into a powder and mixed with water to make a mush or made into bread[
]. The seed is rather small and fiddly to utilize[
Seed - sow spring or autumn in situ and only just cover. Germination should take place within 2 weeks.
If seed is in short supply it can be surface sown in a cold frame in early spring. When large enough to handle, prick out the seedlings into individual pots and plant them out in early summer.
Division in spring. Large clumps can be planted out direct into their permanent positions whilst it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are ready to be planted out.