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Useful Temperate Plants

Berberis integerrima

Bunge

Berberidaceae

+ Synonyms

Berberis densiflora Boiss. & Buhse

Common Name:

No Image.

General Information

Berberis integerrima is a much-branched, spiny, deciduous shrub that usually grows around 1 - 3 metres tall but can sometimes reach 4 metres[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and medicine. It is cultivated in Iran (especially Khorasan) for the berries - the cultivated races have rather large fruits whereas the fruits of wild plants are not tasty[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
].

Known Hazards

All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid berberine - this is most concentrated in the roots, stems and inner bark, and least concentrated in the fruits. In small quantities berberine has a range of effective medicinal applications but, in excess, can cause vomiting, lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate, lethargy, and other ill-effects.
The fruit of most, if not all, members of this genus are more or less edible and can be eaten in quantity since the levels of berberine in the fruit are very low.

Botanical References

74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.

Range

Asia - Turkey, Irag, Iran, Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, western China, Pakistan

Habitat

Stony mountain slopes[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
].

Properties

Edibility Rating *  *  *
Medicinal Rating *  *  *
Other Uses Rating *  *
HabitDeciduous Shrub
Height3.00 m
PollinatorsInsects
Self-fertileNo
Cultivation StatusCultivated, Wild

Cultivation Details

Berberis integerrima is often found growing in semi-arid climates in Asia, where winters can be cold with snow, and summers are hot and often dry1161].
Species in this genus generally prefer a warm moist loamy soil and light shade but are by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils[
11
Title
Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
Publication
 
Author
Bean. W.
Publisher
Murray
Year
1981
ISBN
-
Description
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
,
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
]. Established plants are drought tolerant[
1161
Title
Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub
Publication
Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 276-287
Author
Ali Alemardan; Wahab Asadi; Mehdi Rezaei; Leila Tabrizi; Sia
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
Report on the cultivation and uses of Berberis integerrima
].
Plants can be pruned back quite severely, they resprout well from the base.
Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[
1
Title
RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Publication
 
Author
F. Chittendon.
Publisher
Oxford University Press
Year
1951
ISBN
-
Description
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaced in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
].
Often cultivated as a fruit crop in Iran, where more than 11,000 hectares of the seedless cultivar 'Bidaneh' are grown, producing more than 9,200 tonnes of fruit per annum[
1161
Title
Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub
Publication
Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 276-287
Author
Ali Alemardan; Wahab Asadi; Mehdi Rezaei; Leila Tabrizi; Sia
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
Report on the cultivation and uses of Berberis integerrima
].
Several named forms have been developed, including a seedless form known as 'Bidaneh'[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
].
Plants have a tendency towards biennial bearing, especially as they grow older[
1161
Title
Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub
Publication
Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 276-287
Author
Ali Alemardan; Wahab Asadi; Mehdi Rezaei; Leila Tabrizi; Sia
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
Report on the cultivation and uses of Berberis integerrima
].
Generally, plants begin to fruit 3 - 4 years after planting out suckers, and a 7-year-old orchard should produce about 2 tonnes of dried crop per hectare in suitable conditions and in the 'on' year[
1161
Title
Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub
Publication
Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 276-287
Author
Ali Alemardan; Wahab Asadi; Mehdi Rezaei; Leila Tabrizi; Sia
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
Report on the cultivation and uses of Berberis integerrima
]
Some Berberis species (especially Berberis vulgaris) harbour the black stem-rust fungus (Puccinia graminis Persoon). This is a major disease of wheat and barley crops and can spread from infected barberries to the grain crop. The sale or transport of susceptible or untested species of Berberis is illegal in the United States and Canada[
270
Title
Flora of N. America
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/fna/
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
An on-line version of the flora with an excellent description of the plant including a brief mention of plant uses.
]. We have no data on susceptibility for this species, though it is not known to be prone to this disease in the semi-arid regions where it grows wild[
1161
Title
Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub
Publication
Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 276-287
Author
Ali Alemardan; Wahab Asadi; Mehdi Rezaei; Leila Tabrizi; Sia
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
Report on the cultivation and uses of Berberis integerrima
,
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
].

Edible Uses

Fruit - raw or cooked[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
]. Fruits of the wild species are not considered to be tasty, but forms have been developed in cultivation with larger, tastier fruits[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
]. The obovate or oblong, purple- red fruits are around 7 - 8mm long[
74
Title
Flora of the USSR.
Publication
 
Author
Komarov. V. L.
Website
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org
Publisher
Israel Program for Scientific Translation
Year
1968
ISBN
-
Description
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers. It can be downloaded from the Internet.
]. (these are the wild fruits, cultivated forms are apparently larger[
K
Title
Plants for a Future
Author
Ken Fern
Description
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
]),
The dried fruit is used mainly as a food additive in Iranian dishes, whilst the fresh fruit is used for the production of jellies, syrups, jams, sauces, juices, fruit concentrates and carbonated beverages[
1161
Title
Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub
Publication
Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 276-287
Author
Ali Alemardan; Wahab Asadi; Mehdi Rezaei; Leila Tabrizi; Sia
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
Report on the cultivation and uses of Berberis integerrima
].
The anthocyanins in the fruit have recently been given much attention and are considered as a useful additive (i.e. as a natural coloring agent) in food industries[
1161
Title
Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub
Publication
Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 276-287
Author
Ali Alemardan; Wahab Asadi; Mehdi Rezaei; Leila Tabrizi; Sia
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
Report on the cultivation and uses of Berberis integerrima
].

Medicinal

In traditional medicine, this plant was used to cure such diseases as infectious fevers, typhus and diarrhoea.
In vitro and in vivo studies indicate pharmacological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, and antihypertensive effects[
1161
Title
Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub
Publication
Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 276-287
Author
Ali Alemardan; Wahab Asadi; Mehdi Rezaei; Leila Tabrizi; Sia
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
Report on the cultivation and uses of Berberis integerrima
].
In studies of Staphylococcus aureus, it was found that the fruit extract enhanced antibacterial activity of ampicillin with 1-methyl malate as the active component[
1161
Title
Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub
Publication
Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 276-287
Author
Ali Alemardan; Wahab Asadi; Mehdi Rezaei; Leila Tabrizi; Sia
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
Report on the cultivation and uses of Berberis integerrima
].

An aqueous extract of the roots has een shown to be antioxidant, cholesterolemic and hypoglycaemic. It can be used effectively in the treatment of dult-onset diabetes[
1162
Title
Effects of Aqueous Extract of Berberis integerrima Root on Some Physiological Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced D
Publication
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2013), 12 (2): 425-434
Author
Hossein Ashraf; Reza Heidari; Vahid Nejati; Minoo Ilkhanipoo
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
 
].
A methanol extract of the root has been shown to have anticonvulsant properties and can be used in the treatment of petit mal epilepsy[
1163
Title
Anticonvulsant Effect of Berberis integerrima L. Root Extracts in Mice
Publication
Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies (2013) 6(1):12-17
Author
Hossein Hosseinzadeh; Mohammad Ramezani; Hojjat Shafaei; Ela
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
 
].

The alkaloid berberine, which is universally present in the roots and stems of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery[
218
Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
].
It should not be used in combination with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine[
218
Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
].
Berberine has also shown antitumour activity[
218
Title
Medicinal Plants of China
Publication
 
Author
Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S.
Publisher
Reference Publications, Inc.
Year
1985
ISBN
0-917256-20-4
Description
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
].

Other Uses

A brown dye obtained from the roots and stems is used for dyeing wool, silk and cotton[
317
Title
Mansfeld's Database of Agricultural and Horticultural Plants
Publication
 
Author
 
Website
http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/pls/htmldb_pgrc/f?p=185:3:4292127278597336
Publisher
 
Year
0
ISBN
 
Description
Terse details of a huge range of useful plants.
,
1161
Title
Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub
Publication
Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 276-287
Author
Ali Alemardan; Wahab Asadi; Mehdi Rezaei; Leila Tabrizi; Sia
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
Report on the cultivation and uses of Berberis integerrima
].

In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the extract of the plant could be a biologically active controlling agent, useful in treating fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora[
1161
Title
Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub
Publication
Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 276-287
Author
Ali Alemardan; Wahab Asadi; Mehdi Rezaei; Leila Tabrizi; Sia
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
Report on the cultivation and uses of Berberis integerrima
].

The bark extract has significant negative effect on the mould fungus Botrytis cinerea, which causes great economic losses of crops every year[
1161
Title
Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub
Publication
Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 276-287
Author
Ali Alemardan; Wahab Asadi; Mehdi Rezaei; Leila Tabrizi; Sia
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
Report on the cultivation and uses of Berberis integerrima
].

Berberine, obtained from the roots and stems of the plant, may be effective in controlling brown rot caused by Monilinia fructicola, which causes considerable yield reduction of peaches[
1161
Title
Cultivation of Iranian seedless barberry (Berberis integerrima ‘Bidaneh’): A medicinal shrub
Publication
Industrial Crops and Products 50 (2013) 276-287
Author
Ali Alemardan; Wahab Asadi; Mehdi Rezaei; Leila Tabrizi; Sia
Publisher
 
Year
2013
ISBN
 
Description
Report on the cultivation and uses of Berberis integerrima
].

Propagation

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, when it should germinate in late winter or early spring[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
]. Seed from over-ripe fruit will take longer to germinate[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
], whilst stored seed may require cold stratification and should be sown in a cold frame as early in the year as possible[
80
Title
Hardy Woody Plants from Seed.
Publication
 
Author
McMillan-Browse. P.
Publisher
Grower Books
Year
1985
ISBN
0-901361-21-6
Description
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.
]. The seedlings are subject to damping off, so should be kept well ventilated[
113
Title
The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation.
Publication
 
Author
Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W.
Publisher
Athens Ga. Varsity Press
Year
1987
ISBN
0942375009
Description
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame. If growth is sufficient, it can be possible to plant them out into their permanent positions in the autumn, but generally it is best to leave them in the cold frame for the winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, mid summer in a frame.
Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, preferably with a heel, autumn in a frame[
78
Title
Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
Publication
 
Author
Sheat. W. G.
Publisher
MacMillan and Co
Year
1948
ISBN
-
Description
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
].
Suckers, removed in late autumn/early winter and planted out in situ or potted up and planted out in late spring[
200
Title
The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Publication
 
Author
Huxley. A.
Publisher
MacMillan Press
Year
1992
ISBN
0-333-47494-5
Description
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
].

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