Unless a more recent treatment has been published, we are in general following the treatment in Flora of China[
]. However, there is a new revision of the Chinese Berberis species currently being prepared (2016) and it is likely that it will lead to several revisions once it is published[
Berberis bretschneideri Rehder
Berberis japonica (Regel) C.K.Schneid.
Berberis regeliana Koehne ex C.K.Schneid.
Berberis vulgaris amurensis (Rupr.) Regel
Berberis vulgaris japonica Regel
Berberis amurensis is a few-branched, spiny, rigidly erect, deciduous shrub growing 200 - 350cm tall[
The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and medicine. It is cultivated as a medicinal plant in southeastern Siberia[
]. And is sometimes grown as an ornamental in gardens, where it can be used to make an impenetrable hedge. There are some named forms selected for their ornamental value[
All parts of the plant contain the alkaloid berberine - this is most concentrated in the roots, stems and inner bark, and least concentrated in the fruits. In small quantities berberine has a range of effective medicinal applications but, in excess, can cause vomiting, lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate, lethargy, and other ill-effects.
The fruit of most, if not all, members of this genus are more or less edible and can be eaten in quantity since the levels of berberine in the fruit are very low.
E. Asia - eastern Siberia, China, Japan, Korea
Thickets, sparse forests, valleys, forest margins, streamsides, sides of rocks; at elevations from 1,100 - 2,900 metres[
|Other Uses Rating||
|Cultivation Status||Cultivated, Ornamental, Wild
Prefers a warm moist loamy soil and light shade but it is by no means fastidious, succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils[
]. Grows well in heavy clay soils.
This species is closely allied to Berberis vulgaris, it hybridizes freely with other members of the genus[
Plants can be pruned back quite severely and will resprout well from the base[
Some Berberis species (especially Berberis vulgaris) harbour the black stem-rust fungus (Puccinia graminis Persoon). This is a major disease of wheat and barley crops and can spread from infected barberries to the grain crop. The sale or transport of susceptible or untested species of Berberis is illegal in the United States and Canada[
]. This species has been found to be susceptible to the disease[
Fruit - cooked. A sharp, acid flavour[
]. Used in preserves and confections[
]. The red oblong fruit is about 10mm long and 6mm wide[
]. No more details.
The root is antirheumatic[
The alkaloid berberine, which is universally present in the roots and stems of Berberis species, has marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric infections, especially bacterial dysentery[
It should not be used in combination with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects of the berberine[
Berberine has also shown antitumour activity[
Plants are very amenable to trimming and can be grown as an almost impenetrable formal or informal hedge[
The roots and wood of all Berberis species contain alkaloids and, when cut open, are a strong yellow colour. This has been utilized by various cultures to make a yellow dye for cloth etc[
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, when it should germinate in late winter or early spring[
]. Seed from over-ripe fruit will take longer to germinate[
], whilst stored seed may require cold stratification and should be sown in a cold frame as early in the year as possible[
]. The seedlings are subject to damping off, so should be kept well ventilated[
]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame. If growth is sufficient, it can be possible to plant them out into their permanent positions in the autumn, but generally it is best to leave them in the cold frame for the winter and plant them out in late spring or early summer of the following year.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, mid summer in a frame.
Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, preferably with a heel, autumn in a frame[